Friday, 15 October 2021

Four of the Charles VI Austrian flags as possible Leibfahnen versions

 I have been asked if it would be possible to have versions of the previous Charles VI company flags with white sheets to depict possible Leibfahnen so here they are:

Wednesday, 13 October 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

And here's yet another Charles VI flag, after an illustration in my new source. I'd hate to have to paint those borders by hand on wargames flags; drawing them in a vector drawing program is tedious enough... But at least they do look good. I'll do another Prussian flag set next; it feels like a holiday doing them after the Austrian flags. 8-}

Monday, 11 October 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 31 von Lestwitz

Chef 1746-25th June 1763 Major General Johann Georg von Lestwitz, later Lieutenant General and Chef of IR 32

First raised 1729. In 1756 IR 31 was with Schwerin's 2nd Corps in Silesia. In 1757 the regiment was sent to Bohemia to join the King's army north-east of Prague on 6th May. Both the grenadiers and the musketeer battalions fought at Prague; they were part of the first line that was thrown back by the Austrian defence, the grenadiers losing nearly two-thirds of their numbers and the musketeers two-fifths. After the battle both were involved in the abortive siege of Prague. They missed the defeat at Kolin. In July they went to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and were involved in the defeat at Breslau. After surrendering the city large numbers of the Prussian troops who marched out deserted.

In 1758 the regiment belonged to the Saxon Corps which advanced into Franconia. Hülsen then led them to join the Pomeranian Corps on the Warthe in June. At Kay (Paltzig) on July 23rd 1759 they were repulsed in the somewhat insane attack on the much stronger Russian position. The King took the regiment and grenadiers with his army to Kunersdorf on August 12th. The grenadiers, as part of the advance guard, lost over 50% casualties, and Frederick tried to use the musketeer battalions to help protect the retreating army after the lost battle on the Kuhgrund and the flight of the cavalry. They lost 431 men in the process (Duffy shows at least 40% losses). The King is said to have awarded every private soldier eight Groschen for their courage.

In 1760 IR 31 was at the unsuccessful siege of Dresden the at the battle of Liegnitz on August 15th. There only the grenadiers saw action and lost over 20% casualties. Two commanders received the Pour-le-merite for the action. On September 17th the regiment was involved in the storming of the heights at Hoch-Giersdorf, than at the battle of Torgau on November 3rd, serving in the Tettenborn Brigade of Zieten's command which decided the battle when Frederick thought it lost. They lost 200 men. The grenadiers were with Frederick's main army there.

Again with the King's army in 1761, the grenadiers were in the attack on the Adelsbach Heights on 4th July, losing 300 men, and then were involved in the successful siege of Schweidnitz from 8th August to October 10th. Unusually both grenadier and musketeer battalions almost always served together. The regiment was one of those in Frederick's favour after the Seven Years War.

And this was the uniform in 1756:

Tuesday, 5 October 2021

A speculative update on the last probable Leibfahne; 3 possible company flag variants of that flag

 Here are three possible company flag variants of that last Leibfahne; they are all quite feasible colour schemes and, in this area where we know far too little, these flags extend the possibilities and give "added value". ;-)

Monday, 4 October 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

This is one from my new source. I imagine that it is probably a Leibfahne as the background of the sheet is white. Many of the earlier flags do not seem to have used the Madonna figure as became standardised later, although some did. The eagle on the original is very crude so, although I have kept to its shape and style, I have "improved" it somewhat.

I did think of adding a couple of variants of this one with different coloured backgrounds rather than white; would that be a bit too ImagiNations-ish, though? I'll be interested to hear comments...

Sunday, 26 September 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Infantry Regiment 43 von Kalsow

Chefs SYW: Colonel Christian von Kalsow, later Lieutenant General to 19th January 1757; to 22nd January 1758 Major General Samuel Adolph von Kalckreuth; to 5th February 1760 Colonel Joachim Leopold von Bredow, later Major General; to 17th June 1767 Colonel Döring Wilhelm von Krockow, later Major General

This is another unusual flag set as the Kompaniefahne is completely green and the Leibfahne completely white, apart from the scrolls.

First raised as a garrison regiment in 1741 in Breslau, then converted 1744 into IR 43.

With Schwerin's Silesian Corps in 1756 and the grenadiers fought a rear guard action against attempts to pin them down at Lewin on October 29th. On January 9th 1757 300 men were added to the regimental strength and in April the regiment and grenadiers both marched to Prague. In the ensuing battle grenadiers and regiment were on the left wing in the initial attack which was repulsed and lost 400 men. They were involved in the siege of Prague from May 6th to June 20th. On the march home the First Battalion, barely 450 strong, reached Gabel and was attacked by overwhelming enemy forces and made prisoner on July 15th. At the end of August both the grenadiers and the Second Battalion went to Silesia under the command of Bevern. At the battle of Breslau on 22nd November they fought well on the right wing of the army at Pilsnitz. After the capitulation of Breslau there were only 100 men left.

In 1758 the regiment had been brought up to full strength again and was in the Saxon Corps, taking part in the invasion of Franconia to Hof and with Wedell in his counterattack on the Mulde crossings at Torgau and Eilenburg. The grenadiers were involved in the capture of Schweidnitz on April 16th and then fought at Zorndorf on August 25th, where they lost 246 men and another 87 captured.

In 1759 the regiment was in the advance guard at Himmelskron near Kulmbach, facing off against the Imperial army to May 11th. At the end of July the King took it with his army to face the Russians on the Oder River. At Kunersdorf on August 12th the regiment was in the second line of the advance guard in front of the right wing. It stormed the Bäckergrund and its abatis after a softening up bombardment of 30 minutes, and then took the Mühlberg and its large battery under tremendous fire. But the attack faltered and stopped in the Kuhgrund, with the loss of 550 men including Major the Prince of Holstein-Beck.

In 1760 the regiment was with Prince Heinrich against the Russians in northern Silesia and in 1761 in the camp of Bunzelwitz with the King.

In 1762 IR 43 stormed the Eisenberg at Adelsbach, south-west of Freiburg, under heavy fire and with the loss of 400 men. The King broke off the fight but Daun retreated anyway.

In 1784 the King excluded the regiment from his criticism of all the other Silesian regiments.

And this was the uniform in 1756:

Thursday, 23 September 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

Here's another flag of Charles VI, as probably carried by the army of Maria Theresa in the early 1740s; the source is the HGM in Vienna. This one is unusual in not having the various coloured flames round the edge but bands of colour instead.

Having found a new contemporary source which includes quite a few Charles VI period flags, I shall be able to create and post more in the coming weeks.

I shall reveal the new source of the Charles VI flags eventually but for the moment I am enjoying the thrill of apparently being the only person who knows of it.... Ha ha ha. 😀 (I can hint that it is out there on the Internet, if people know the key words to search on... 😏)

Monday, 20 September 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Infantry Regiment 42 Brandenburg-Schwedt

Chef from 3rd November 1741 until 12th December 1788: Major General Heinrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (he had lost the favour of Frederick so although he drew the salary of his rank he did not actually command the regiment and the regiment accordingly was the only one in the army not to have a guard company).

Commanders in the SYW: to the 22nd April 1760 Colonel Balthasar Rudolf von Schenkendorff, later Major General; from then to 2nd April 1764 Major Heinrich Wilhelm von Lettow, who transferred to IR46.

The flags are unusual in not following the usual pattern; neither has a white centre.

First raised from a variety of odd sources in 1741.

The regiment was with Field Marshal Schwerin's Corps in 1756 and saw no action. In January 1757 it was strengthened by 300 men. Schwerin went to meet Frederick at Prague and in the battle on 6th May the regiment was in the second line on the left wing fighting "without particular distinction". The grenadiers (joined with those of IR33) took the Isar bridges at Zamost and were destroyed at Kolin on 18th June; only one officer, four NCOs and 19 men were uninjured, and 39 wounded were saved from capture. The battalion was filled up with Saxon prisoners. While marching back under the command of Prince August Wilhelm the Second Battalion was captured in the ruins of Zittau.

In 1758 IR42 was part of the King's army, after the prisoners had returned via Jägerndorf in mid-April. As part of Keith's Corps it was part of the encirclement of Olmütz from the west from 20th May to July 1st, and then the King withdrew as the military situation worsened. From August it was back in Silesia, this time under Margrave Karl.

In 1759 it was under the command of Major General von Wobersnow as part of the mission to destroy the Russian magazine at Posen and then fought at Konradswalde in the County of Glatz. July to August it was in camp at Schmottseiffen, under Prince Heinrich from July 29th.

In 1760 the First Battalion was with Fouqé at Landeshut and the survivors of that fight captured. The Second Battalion was with Zieten at Freiburg. The grenadiers were at Dresden, Liegnitz (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition shows about 25% casualties), Hochgiersdorf and Torgau. Their commander was awarded the Pour-le-merite and promoted to colonel.

In Goltz's Corp in 1761, the Second Battalion served in the Pomeranian Campaign.

In August 1762 under Bevern what was left of the regiment took part in an action that beat four Austrian corps north of Peilau. The Second Battalion fought to the last man on the left wing. The King arrived in time to see off the enemy.

Christopher Duffy in AFG 1/2 says: "A very ordinary regiment."

And this was the uniform of a fusilier in 1756:


Here's another for the Prussophiles, which also happens to be the first of the Prague Prussian Flags Project; yes, I know I still have the flags of IR 15 to do to complete the flags of Rossbach and Leuthen! I have also recently discovered a contenporary source that shows many more flags of the Austrian army under Charles VI in the later part of his reign so there will be more 1740s Austrian infantry flags (and possibly cavalry ones too) to follow...

Saturday, 18 September 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

Here we have yet another flag of an unknown Austrian regiment from the reign of Charles VI, which may well have been carried in the early 1740s. Once again, that's about all I can say about it! It feels rather like a holiday,  posting flags without much text... ;-) But I'll be back to the usual text-heavy postings next, with Baden-Baden, Volontaires de Hainaut, more Prussian flags to keep the Prussophiles happy etc. etc..

Sunday, 12 September 2021

Flag of an unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

To keep things ticking over I present here a flag of an unknown Austrian regiment from the reign of Charles VI, which may have been carried in the early 1740s. That's about all I can say about it! There are a number of Charles VI flags for me to do, mostly from unknown regiments, which certainly cuts down the need for text, I am happy to say.

I have collected so much material for the text to go with the Reichsarmee Baden-Baden Regiment I now have to edit it down to a manageable size. Hey ho.

After I complete the flags of Prussian IR15, which are a complex job from scratch, I shall do the Prussian infantry flags of the battle of Prague; many have already been done for Rossbach and Leuthen but that still leaves 13 sets to do.

I have also already drawn the flags of the French light infantry Volontaires de Hainaut, which apparently, according to Kronoskaf, carried the flags of the Arquebusiers de Grassins. The text for that set remains to be done.

Thursday, 26 August 2021

Flags of Austrian Regiment Hoch und Deutschmeister as probably/possibly carried in the early War of the Austrian Succession

 I'm sure many of my readers will be aware that, when the Prussians invaded Silesia in an entirely piratical and unprovoked land-grab in 1740, Maria Theresa, who had just become Empress at 23, had neither the money nor time to reflag her army. Consequently her army went to war carrying the flags of her father Charles VI. We know the details of some of the flags but not all and a certain amount of informed speculation is needed when recreating them. The lack of standardisation is certainly colourful and attractive, and the same is true of the uniforms of the period, with coloured waistcoats and breeches, and musicians in varied and very colourful uniforms. From a military perspective, things like the lack of a standardised drill and artillery were not very helpful, though. In the eight years between the end of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748 and the beginning of the Seven Years War in 1756 the Austrian army underwent a huge transformation, which made it a much more formidable foe to the Prussians; as the Prussian said ruefully after the battle of Lobositz in October 1756, these are not the same Austrians (that they had beaten time and again in the 1740s). From the wargamer's point of view, though, it is a pity that in the process much of the colour and variety were lost!

These are the flags of Austrian Infantry Regiment Deutschmeister as posibly carried in the 1740s. The Leibfahne is somewhat speculative but based on patterns carried by other Austrian regiments. Many Leibfahnen of this period do not seem to have had the Madonna on them, unlike later in the century, but were a simpler variation on the Kompaniefahnen.

A blow by blow account of the regiment can be found on Kronoskaf.

IR No.4 Deutschmeister: First raised 1695

C J Duffy in his book The  Army of Maria Theresa (1977) says:

"Recruited in the Empire and especially the lands of the Teutonic Order. The Inhaber was the current head of the Order. A very famous regiment, distinguished at Camposanto, Rottofreno (1746), Kolin and Landeshut."

On its performance at Kolin: "Next in line to the west was Tresckow's corps which was repelled in fine style by the regiments of Deutschmeister, Baden and Botta."

In his more recent book By Force of Arms (2008) C J Duffy has a rather more critical account of the regiment. He says: "No.4 Deutschmeister. Proprietors: Wittelsbach, Clemens August, Prince, Elector of Cologne, as Grand Master (Hoch-und-Deutschmeister) of the Teutonic Order; succeeded as Grand Master in 1761 by Charles Alexander, Prince of Lorraine."

"Record: Distinguished at Kolin. Breslau, Leuthen. Stormed the Kirch-Berg at Landeshut. Otherwise of no particular reputation in the war [SYW, that is]. The crusading days of the Teutonic Order were long past, and the order was chiefly of value to the monarchy from its ability to recruit in its extensive lands in Swabia.

Significant losses: Very few prisoners or killed in action... Many deaths in hospital... and third heaviest desertion in the infantry."

He also says (which I cannot find specified anywhere else) that the regiment had black cuffs and lapels. All other sources suggest blue!

I suspect the more critical appraisal in the recent book reflects CJD's extensive new research in the Austrian archives; CJD himself says in the Foreword that rereading his own manuscript he was struck by how critical of the Austrian army it seemed, and that this probably is a consequence of the very warts and all completeness of the archives on the Austrian army, which speak well for the honesty and reliability of the material itself!

I plan to do more flags of this period soon...

Friday, 20 August 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 27 von Kleist

Chef from 1747 Major General Franz Ulrich von Kleist, later Lieutenant General, died 13th January 1757 of wounds received at Lobositz; from 20th January 1757 Major General Moritz Wilhelm von Asseburg; from 18th March 1759 Major General Daniel Georg von Lindstedt (to 1764)

Created 1715 from Swedish prisoners and 400 German mercenaries, plus officers and some other ranks from IRs 6 and 3.


It was on the left wing in the attack on the Lobosch Berg at Lobositz, October 1st 1756; the regimental chef Lieutenant General von Kleist stayed on his horse despite severe wounds which killed him three months later. 13 officers and 277 men were casualties. Kleist received the Order of the Black Eagle as did his majors, and 7 captains were given the Pour-le-merite in January 1757. The regiment was at the siege of Prague in 1757 but missed Kolin. It went to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and held a fortified post at Breslau for nearly two months from the end of September. The grenadiers were at Moys on September 7th. On November 22nd the Austrians stormed the Prussian position at Breslau and IR27 lost 13 officers and 687 men. Barely 500 men remained to fight at Leuthen on the right wing in the advance guard. The commander of the regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm von Wietstruck, was killed.

In 1758 Frederick took the regiment along to help besiege Olmütz and on 11th August it was at the battle of Zorndorf against the Russians where it lost 12 officers and 623 men, including its commander Lieutenant Colonel Carl Ludwig von Zessen. Moving to Silesia, the grenadiers were at Hochkirch on October 14th. On 26th March 1759 they were captured at Greiffenburg. The regiment was in the camp at Schmottseiffen.

Although the regiment was with Prince Heinrich's Corps in 1760 and after that with the King's army, it saw no further major action. In 1763 it consisted of 1738 Prussians, 67 Saxons and 165 foreigners.

Christopher Duffy says of IR27 (Army of Frederick the Great, 1st and 2nd Edition) "Frederick once saw it fall out of step while returning from a review, whereupon he called out to the inspector: "Saldern, let the regiment be! It was never very good at falling back - it has only ever known how to attack!""

And this was the rather fancy musketeer uniform in 1756:

I'm still working on the text for the Baden-Baden Reichsarmee flags and uniform so thought I'd better show willing and post something as it's now ten days since my last posting. I'm also thinking of posting the flags of Austrian regiment Deutschmeister as carried in the 1740s; they were the old flags as issued by Charles VI as Maria Theresa did not have time or money to issue new flags when faced with the aggression of Frederick of Prussia who invaded Silesia in 1740 almost as soon as she had come to the throne of Austria-Hungary.

Tuesday, 10 August 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 25 von Kalckstein

Chef SYW to 2nd June 1759 Colonel Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein, later Field Marshal; from 8th February 1760 to 1782 Major General Friedrich Ehrentreich von Ramin, later Lieutenant General and Governor of Berlin

Regiment of 2 battalions created 1715 from companies dating back to 1626.


The regiment was with the King's Army against the Saxons at Pirna in 1756.  At Kolin on 18th June 1757 as part of Bevern's corps the regiment lost a third of its officers and around 60-odd percent of its effectives (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition, henceforth AFG1). The regiment went with Bevern to Silesia and was at the defeat of Breslau on Novermber 22nd 1757. Here the regiment lost its commander Colonel Hieronimus Wilhelm von Eckardt. Despite such heavy losses the regiment and its grenadiers were at Leuthen. The regiment fought its way round the village and lost about 15% casualties (AFG1). It was then at the siege of Breslau, which culminated in the ignominious surrender of 17,000 Austrians on the 20th December.

In 1758 IR25 joined the King's Army and was at Zorndorf on August 25th; on the right in Dohna's Wing it helped drive off the Russian cavalry attack and suffered around 20% casualties (AFG1). At Hochkirch the regiment helped cover the retreat of the battered army.

In 1759 it was encamped at Schmottseiffen with the King; the grenadiers, as part of the advance guard, suffered around 40% casualties at Kunersdorf and the remnant were captured at Maxen.

In 1760 the regiment was with Prince Heinrich's Corps at Torgau on November 3rd, fighting as part of the Queiss Brigade on the left flank of the main army. As part of the second column under von Bülow they took the Süptitz Heights but were thrown back. Regimental casualties for Torgau are not available.

After being encamped at Bunzelwitz in 1761 the regiment headed for Pomerania on 25th October, stormed the Kolberg fortifications at Spie and was in Saxony by the end of the year.

In Silesia in 1762 IR25 was at the battle of Burkersdorf on July 21st, where it captured the northern fortifications at Ludwigsdorf but with heavy casualties. Its final action of the war was at the successful siege of Schweidnitz.

And this was the uniform in 1756:

 I had planned to post the flags and uniform of Reichsarmee Regiment Baden-Baden next but I am still working on the text for them. Of the remaining Prussian flags for Leuthen, of IRs 15 and 27, those of IR15 will take some time as they are unique and will need to be created from scratch...

Sunday, 1 August 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Regiment 36 von Münchow

First raised 1740. Chef was Colonel Gustav Bogislav von Münchow, later Lieutenant General, from 1740-1766.

IR36 was with the King's Army at Lobositz on October 1st 1756, and was heavily involved in the fighting against the Croats on the Lobosch Hill. In 1757 it was at first with Schwerin's army, then with Keith as part of the encirclement of Prague from the west. At Kolin on the 18th June the regiment was with von Hülsen's advance guard leading the first attack on the Krzeczhorz Heights, which it took as well as the village and held to the bitter end, losing 23 officers and 908 men. By the evening there were only around 6-700 men left. From mid-August it joined Bevern's Corps and fought at Breslau on the left wing under Zieten; the regiment fought well despite being barely one battalion strong. Joining the King's army with the survivors of Breslau on the 2nd December, the grenadiers and the battalion-strong regiment fought at Leuthen on the right wing of the second line. The commander and the two captains of IR36 in the grenadier battalion 35/36 received the Pour-le-merite for their capture of four cannon at Breslau and of a battery at Leuthen, having lost 167 men at the latter battle. (Christopher Duffy in Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition (henceforth AFG1) shows about 50% casualties.) The remains of the regiment went to join in the siege of Breslau.

From the end of March to the middle of April 1758 IR36 was with the King's Army successfully besieging Schweidnitz then advanced to Olmütz and the capture of the city of Littau. Under Margrave Karl it was involved in the occupation of Silesia. In 1759 the grenadiers fought at Kunersdorf (AFG1 shows about 50% casualties) and the regiment was at the camp of Schmottseiffen under the King then Prince Heinrich.

In the autumn of 1759 it was with Finck's Corps, which was surrounded and forced to surrender at Maxen on November 21st; in total 13,000 men of that Corps were captured, a huge loss to the Prussian army. Recruitment was difficult so the remaining battalion became part of the garrison of Schweidnitz, which was captured in 1761; IR36 and three other battalions laid down their arms. IR36 was not raised again until 1763 when its ranks were filled with Saxons from what had been the regiment of Prince Lubomirski, later Röbel.

Christopher Duffy says (AFG1) that IR36 had "an unenviable record" and that Frederick "held the... "Maxen" regiments in everlasting contempt", even though the responsibility for the isolation and loss of Finck's Corps ultimately rested with Frederick.

And this was the uniform in 1756:

This is another rather plain set of Prussian flags; the next two, IRs 25 and 27, are more complex and cheery. Then the last flags that need doing for the Leuthen list are those of IR15, the unique flags of Frederick's Guards. (They will also complete the Rossbach list.) Immediately after IR36's flags I plan to post those of the Reichsarmee regiment Baden-Baden, in tribute to their heroic fight at Freiberg in 1762 along with several other Reichsarmee units, whose flags I may also produce. Once I have completed the Prussian infantry flags line up for Leuthen I may go on to do those of the battle of Prague; many of the flags that remain to do for that battle are, as luck would have it, fairly complex and colourful.

Tuesday, 20 July 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 30 von Blanckensee

First raised February 1728. Chefs in the SYW were: Major General Berend Sigismund von Blanckensee to October 1756;  Major General Hans Samuel von Pritz from 19.10.1756;  Major General Ernst Ludwig von Kannacher from 21.01.1757;  Major General Joachim Friedrich von Stutterheim from 01.01.1759.

The regiment was with the King's Army in 1756. The grenadiers were at Pirna helping hem in the Saxons and the 2 musketeers battalions were at Lobositz on the left flank under Keith where they were involved in  helping clear the Lobosch Hill of Croats; they lost 275 men. At Prague on May 6th 1757 the regiment was part of the breakthrough south of Kej under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick and appears to have suffered minimal casualties. On the 9th May the grenadiers and 2 musketeer companies stormed the Ziska-Berg north-east of Prague. The regiment was not at Kolin. In August the grenadiers went with the King to Rossbach and the musketeers went to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and suffered defeat at Breslau on the 22nd November. On the right centre of the main line at Leuthen on December 2nd, the two musketeer battalions suffered only about 15% casualties (C J Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition henceforth AFG1). After the battle the regiment was at the fall of Breslau on December 19th.

IR30 stayed in Silesia under Margrave Karl after the unsuccessful 1758 campaign. At Hochkirch on October 14th Field Marshal Keith tried to recapture the lost batteries along the eastern edge of the town at the head of IR30 but was shot from his horse and mortally wounded. The regiment was ordered to abandon the attack and the lost guns. Half the regiment was lost (AFG1 confirms 50% casualties).

In 1759 IR30 was in action at Torgau, Meissen and Böhmisch-Friedland. In 1760 it fought at Strehla under Prince Heinrich in August and at Torgau on November 3rd. Both grenadier and musketeer battalions led second the attack on the Süptitz Heights, suffering heavy casualties when attacked by four regiments of cuirassiers. Nearly all the officers were wounded.

In 1761 IR30 helped secure eastern Saxony and again in 1762, culminating in the battle of Freiberg on October 29th, where as part of the Jung-Stutterheim Brigade IR30 came up against, for once, three hard-fighting regiments of the Reichsarmee in the shape of Rodt, Trier and Baden-Baden. The brigade's attacks were repulsed. Only after the success of neighbouring attacks were IR30 and the other regiments of the brigade able to advance, towards the end of the battle. Frederick awarded two majors and a lieutenant of IR30 the Pour-le-merite.

Frederick called IR30 "a good and brave regiment".

 And here is the musketeer uniform in 1756:


Saturday, 10 July 2021

Flags of French Regiment Royal Cantabres, originally Volontaires Cantabres

Royal Cantabres began life as Volontaires Cantabres. It was first raised December 15th 1745 as a light infantry unit in the Basque region. It was initially a battalion of around 500 but was increased to around 1600 infantrymen and 300 hussars, with 2 cannon, in 1747. It campaigned in Flanders in the WAS and was at  the siege of Brussels and the battle of Rocoux in 1746. The unit was much reduced in numbers in 1748 then disbanded in 1749 leaving a small unit of 4 companies. It took the title of Cantabres-Volontaires in 1749. The four company unit took part in the French attack on Minorca in 1756 then became one regular battalion 8th July 1757 as Royal Cantabres. It was stationed in Auch in 1757 and then joined Soubise's Army of the Lower Rhine in 1761. In 1762 it was part of the French expeditionary force sent to Spain for the intended invasion of Portugal. 112th in the army list SYW. Disbanded 25th November 1762. (There is much more detail in the Kronoskaf page on this unit.)

And this was the uniform in 1757 (from the 1757 MS) although I have missed off some strange addition to the tricorne which is impossible to interpret on the MS drawing:



Back to Prussian flags next with the flags of IR30!

2 sheets of British late 17th century and early 18th century infantry flags, suitable for WSS

Yes, I know it's not SYW ;-) but - I have available 2 A4 sheets of British infantry flags which I did for a friend ages ago. They are too big to put on the blog but if you leave a message below (with an email address, heavily disguised to avoid spamming) or send me a message by my Contact Form (left side of the blog) I shall email the sheets to you.

Low-resolution snapshots here:

Saturday, 3 July 2021

Flags of French light troops Volontaires Royaux, later Légion Royale

Here's something a bit different; the flags of a legion of light infantry and cavalry in the French army, no doubt carried only by the fusilier companies (unless someone knows otherwise!).


From Pajol, Les Guerres Sous Louis XV Volume 7, Paris 1891 [My translation]:

Volontaires Royaux first raised 15th August 1745 from former free companies of infantry and dragoons with the exception of those of Fischer and Goengoesy. They counted at their creation 12 companies, 100 dragoons and a company of hussars.

On the 19th November 1756 they were increased to 2,150 men of whom 900 were dragoons. On the 7th May 1758 on account of their valour and services they were given the title of Légion Royale.

Légion Royale: Formed the 7th May 1758 with 17 companies, of which 2 were grenadiers, 12 of fusiliers, of dragoons, of hussars and 60 workmen [ouvriers = pioneers?], they were also equipped with 2 light artillery pieces à la Suedoise [4 pounders]. In consideration of the fact that it was the oldest of all the light troops and also because of its composition and its recognized utility, it was augmented by the remains of the volunteers of Hainaut made prisoner at Minden. On the 11th November 1758 it was increased to 2.700 men plus a new company of hussars.

The 10th February 1759: "The services which the Légion Royale has rendered, since its creation and particularly in the latest campaigns, the need of light troops in the current wars, either in relation to the different countries that it is so important to know well, or by the need to have troops always in front, to know the movements of enemies, demonstrates the importance of increasing the numbers of these troops - The King"

On the 17th May 1763 the Legion was increased by 8 companies of fusiliers and 8 companies of dragoons.

Service: 1745 in Flanders; 1747 with the Army of the Alps, County of Nice and in the Var, up to the peace; 1757 the advance guard of the Army of Germany; 1758 battles of Rittberg, Hastenbeck and Clostercamps; 1763 Huningue [and more beyond the SYW which I have not listed].

The Legion was reformed in 1776.

Uniforms: Hussars: Blue dolman and pelisse with black braiding and white buttons; red pouch; breeches and shabraque blue.

1759-1767: Fusiliers: waistcoat and coat blue with collar; facings red; breeches white; tricorne laced white.

Dragoons: blue coat; collar, cuffs and turnbacks red; waistcoat and breeches white; shabraque blue with white lace, edged red.


Much more on the history of this unit in the Seven Years War and before can be found on Kronoskaf.

Here's the fusilier uniform in 1756:


Tuesday, 29 June 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Regiment 37 von Kurssell

Chefs: From 12/9/1755 Major General Heinrich Adolf von Kurssell, died 26/9/1758 of wounds received at Zorndorf; from 8/12/1758 Major General August Wilhelm von Braun, later Lieutenant General, to 1770

One of the new fusilier regiments, first raised 1740. Part of Schwerin's Silesian Corps in 1756; it reached Bohemia only in 1757, joining the King north-east of Prague on May 6th. In the battle of Prague it was on the left wing in the first line and suffered heavy casualties when the Austrians defeated the first attack there with heavy musketry and artillery fire. The regiment lost 13 officers and 661 men. Christopher Duffy in Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition (henceforth AFG1) shows around 45% casualties. Schwerin was killed and Winterfeldt wounded. While the Royal Army was overrunning Bohemia, IR37 was sent with the Duke of Bevern's Corps to Silesia, and the 2nd Battalion went to strengthen Schweidnitz. On November 12th the Austrians took some outlying forts and made breaches in the main fortifications. The Prussian commander Major General von Sers then surrendered so the 2nd Battalion IR37 was amongst the prisoners. The grenadiers held Pilsnitz before Breslau during the battle of November 22nd and threw back enemy attacks three times. At Leuthen on December 5th the 1st Battalion covered the left flank between the first and second lines; the grenadiers were on the right of Zieten's right wing. The 1st Battalion captured three cannon in the advance. AFG1 shows around 30% casualties in the 1st Battalion.

During that winter the prisoners from the 2nd Battalion returned via Jägerndorf and Peterswald. The regiment was with the King's army besieging Schweidmitz in 1758 until the storming of the Galgenberg on April 16th; the grenadiers were at Olmütz. Frederick left Bohemia in early August and IR37 went to the Oder to reinforce Dohna's Corps and fought at Zorndorf on August 25th. Its chef Major Gneeral von Kurssell, was mortally wounded. AFG1 shows about 25% casualties in the two battalions. After Zorndorf the regiment was with Prince Frans von Braunschweig at Beeskow. The grenadiers were at Hochkirch on October 14th. As part of Wedell's Corps it was involved in the defeat of the Swedes at Fehrbellin on 22nd September. Recruiting in Lower Silesia continued to be easy.

In 1759 the regiment fought under von Knobloch at Saalfeld on 26th March, at Kronach in May and then on July 30th was with the King heading towards Crossen. But at Kunersdorf on August 12th the regiment was nearly wiped out attacking the Grosse Spitzberg, losing 16 officers and 992 men. AFG1 shows about 70% casualties. On November 9th the grenadiers joined Finck's Corps and were captured at Maxen.

On June 23rd 1760 the 1st Battalion was captured after fierce fighting at Landeshut with Fouque. The 2nd Battalion was with Zieten's Corps at Freiburg. After spending time at Wahlstadt with Zieten and then in camp at Bunzelwitz in August, it went with Platen to the siege of Kolberg, which began on October 2nd. On October 25th the 2nd Battalion was captured at Treptow, and the 1st Battalion suffered a dreadful retreat from Kolberg to Stettin.

In 1762 it was in Silesia, fighting at Adelsbach on July 6th, Friedland July 8th and on July 21st stormed the southern fortifications of Leutmannsdorf "up a coverless slope". Its last action in the war was to help besiege Schweidnitz for 63 days. In 1763 it had 1485 Prussians, 27 Saxons and 342 "foreigners". Christopher Duffy (AFG1) calls it "an unlucky regiment", as it was so often captured in the Seven Years War.

And this was the uniform in 1756:

Friday, 18 June 2021

An Austro-Hungarian flag to commemorate the anniversary of the battle of Kolin 18th June 1757...

I felt I mustn't miss noting that today is the anniversary of the Austro-Hungarian victory over the Prussians at Kolin on 18th June 1757. Here's my version of a flag of the Grenze light infantry, the specialist troops from the Borders of the Empire; although in the War of the Austrian Succession they tended to dominate the kleine krieg, by the Seven Years War the Prussians were at least their equals and some sources suggest they beat them at their own game.

The flag is a legacy version from the War of the Austrian Succession, with the name of Maria Theresa's father Charles VI; at the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession there was neither the money nor the time to reflag the Austro-Hungarian army. I wonder if any of these survived into the Seven Years War?

For detailed accounts of the various units, Kronoskaf is, of course, the place to go.


Monday, 14 June 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Regiment 39 Prinz Friedrich Franz von Braunschweig

Chef Prinz Friedrich Franz von Braunschweig, from 26th December 1745. Colonel as of 1st March 1751 and later Major General. Died Hochkirch 14th October 1758, aged 26. No chef from 1758-1763.

First raised 1740 as the House regiment of Braunschweig, which it was for 30 years.


In 1756 the regiment was kept on the old establishment of 1220 men. It was mobilised on July 25th in Far Pomerania under Lieutenant General the Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt to reinforce the Prussian Corps there. At Prague on 6th May 1757 the regiment was on the right wing, second line under Hautcharmoy and took part in the breakthrough south of Kej after Winterfeldt's first attack was thrown back and Winterfeldt wounded. Prinz Franz was at its head when it followed IR18 in storming across the long causeway towards Mount Tabor and into the fighting in the Rokenitz Brook. Suffering heavy losses it advanced to near the city of Prague by the end of the battle. The King greatly approved. (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition (henceforth AFG1) shows losses of about 30%.) The grenadiers were at Kolin on the 18th June and lost their commander, as well as about 25% rank and file as casualties (AFG1). IR39 joined Bevern for the push into Lusatia and Silesia and one battalion fought in the defeat at Breslau on November 22nd. The 1st battalion of IR39 fought at Leuthen on the second line of the right wing, losing about 25% casualties (AFG1) but capturing 14 enemy cannon.

In 1758 the regiment was with the King besieging Olmütz. On returning from Moravia it defended the vehicle park from repeated attacks. At Hochkirch on October 14th it was with Retzow's corps on the left flank and helped protect the army's withdrawal. Its chef Prinz Friedrich Franz was killed by a cannonball on the right wing of the army and his horse with its very highly decorative saddle ran between the armies in panic for some time after his death. Lack of recruits prevented the regiment being further employed that year.

In 1759 IR39 returned to the King's army but saw little action at Landeshut or Schmottseiffen.

In 1760 both battalions joined Prinz Heinrich's army, which gathered in May between Sagan and Lauban. The grenadiers lost 389 men at Liegnitz on 15th August; they were stationed on the left wing. (AFG1 shows about 50% casualties.) On September 17th, along with IR35, the regiment was involved in a fierce battle at Hochgiersdorf and captured 17 cannon.

In the first months of 1761 IR39 was with the King's army in Saxony, and surrounded by six times the number of enemies at Altenburg but managed to escape to Leipzig without loss. After being in the camp at Bunzelwitz the grenadiers took 5000 wagons and 1800 prisoners at Gostyn. The rest of the regiment followed to Pomerania on November 14th and took the fortifications at Spie on December 12th. An exhausting march to Saxony via Stettin followed. The regiment was stationed in Neisse from April 1762. In 1763 it consisted of 561 native Prussians, 211 Saxons and 1098 "foreigners". It was one of the regiments most highly favoured by the King after the war. Christopher Duffy (AFG1) says: "Almost three-quarters of the complement were foreigners. Fought well in action but suffered heavily from desertion. Severe losses in Pomerania 1761".

 And this was the uniform in 1756:


Thursday, 10 June 2021

Rossbach French Flags Project - Regiment Mailly

I somehow managed to miss this large 4 battalion regiment that was prominent in the Rossbach debacle; it was at the head of the right hand French column and was given a very rough time by Prussian artillery and musketry, as the Susane text below shows with its long list of officer casualties and mention of the loss of 700 other ranks.

Mailly was first raised in 1589 but only admitted into the French army in 1610. 4 battalions strong, so a brigade in itself. The flags are simple as befits one of the older French regiments. Ranked 11th in the Seven Years War.

And this is my translation of the text from Susane Volume 4:

In 1756, when the war at sea began again with the British, the regiment was part of the forces camped near Le Havre and at the end of the campaigning season was based in the towns of Beauvais, Noyon, Soissons and Senlis. It was at Cambrai in 1757, when it received the order to join the army being assembled by the Marshal d'Estrées on the Lower Rhine. Soon after it was at the battle of Hastenbeck where it suffered the loss of 150 men. Captains Durenaud, de Montbel, de Vandires, La Molère, Du Bosse and three lieutenants were wounded there. In the month of October, it joined the army of Saxony, commanded by the Prince de Soubise, and arrived just in time to take part in the disaster of Rossbach. It occupied on this fatal day the right of the second line of infantry behind Piémont, and suffered the same fate as this old corps. The regiment lost 40 officers and 700 soldiers killed, wounded or prisoners, although the regiment had left more than two-thirds of its number in places and in the hospitals of Hanover and Lower Saxony. Lieutenant-Colonel de Boisrenard was wounded and taken, Major La Porterie killed; Captains Monyefroy, Vauvert and Villiers were killed, as were lieutenants Villiers de Beuvran, Laporte, Rique, Dusentre and Girondin. Among the wounded, who almost all were taken prisoner, were Captains Tréville, Saint-Léger, Saint-Féréol, Maillet, Montbel, Boisrenaud, La Mothe, Milly, Durenaud, Preville, Galembert, La Meillerie, Saint-Denis, Bouvet, du Noiret, du Pouerçon, Perrault, Maréchal, Romme, Boudon, Baudemont, du Bosse, Vandières et Dupuis, and 13 lieutenants.

The battalion commander of La Garrigue, who had been detached with 200 men, 15 days before, to guard the lines of communication and the army's magazines, rendered a great service in gathering together the runaways and in covering the retreat. He also saved 120 wagons and rallied 6000 men with whom he was able to evacuate the magazines and the hospitals.

After the disaster of Rossbach the regiment was sent to Hanover which it left in January 1758 to go to Hildesheim, then to Paderborn. It was at Wesel in March and a short time later returned to France. It was employed until 1761 in the defence of the coast of Brittany and had its headquarters in Brest. The regiment was then called Talaru.

In 1759 it repelled an attempted landing by the British in the Bay of Cancalle, and suffered a very strong cannonade from Admiral Harvey's fleet, which wished to capture 14 frigates taking refuge in the port of Conquet. A little while later, a detachment of 200 men, embarked on the fleet of Marshal de Conflans, found itself in naval combat in Belle-Isle. There it lost several officers, among others captains de Boisselet and de Beuvran.

In 1761 the regiment left Saint-Omer, where it had spent the bad season, to rejoin the army on the Lower Rhine. It camped at first below Wesel, took part, on the 21st June in the attack on Luynen, and found itself in the combats of the 15th and 16th July, near to Vellingshausen. It shortly after left the army of the Prince de Soubise and joined that of Marschal de Broglie. On arriving at the camp of Grebenstein, it was ordered, in September, to occupy the forest of Sabbaborg to cover the right of the army. There it was attacked frontally by 1600 of the enemy, while a column of 15,000 of the allies tried to go round to the rear. In this critical position the regiment executed a march of 4 leagues without being caught, and gave, by this splendid manoeuvre, the time for the Comte de Stainville to retreat to the entrenched camp of Cassel.

Mailly, under the name of Chatellux, was in the campaign of 1762 with the same army without taking part in any important operation, and returned to France in March 1763. An ordonnance of 10th December 1762 had changed its name from that of its colonel and given it the title of the province of Guyenne, which until then had been held by a regiment created under Louis XIV, and reformed that year.

And this was the uniform in 1756:

Friday, 4 June 2021

Flags of French Regiment Gardes Lorraines

First raised in Piedmont in 1643 as the guard of Prince Thomas of Savoy, Prince of Carignan. Given by the Prince of Carignan to Louis XIV in 1659 and took the name of Soissons. Took the name of Perche from 1691 to 1744 and was then absorbed into the Regiment of Gardes Lorraines as its first battalion.  2 battalions. Ranked 30th in the SYW.

My version of the flags is based closely on that depicted in the 1757 Manuscript.

And next my translation of the text in Susane Volume 5 on the regiment in the SYW:

The regiment took part in the first gathering of French troops at Wesel in 1757, from 27th April to the 21st of May. On the 24th July it fought at Hastenbeck, and then took part in the taking of Minden and Hanover, and the pursuit of the Anglo-Hanoverian army to Zell. In January 1758, the Convention of Closterseven by which this army was supposed no longer to serve, having been violated, the Gardes Lorraines marched to Brèmes, attacked the Hanoverian vanguard at Riddershade and tool possession of this post. They then rallied the corps of the Duke of Broglie who entrusted them with the guard of the town of Hoya on the Weser. On the 23rd February the regiment was attacked there by the whole army of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. Le Comte de Chabot, who commanded at Hoya, evacuated and burned the suburb beyond the Weser, and sent an aide de camp to the Duc de Broglie to ask for reinforcements. But meanwhile the Prince Ferdinand crossed the Weser on rafts with part of his army and came to attack the Gardes Lorraines by all the access ways of this open town. The resistance was long and vigorous; the Chevalier de Beavau and the Lieutenant-Colonel de Chastellar, of the same family as the old Sallières, did all that it was possible to do; but it was necessary to give up the place. The regiment, which had lost 15 officers and had only 300 men fit to fight, retreated towards Brème. On arriving at the gates of that town, they discovered that the enemy had occupied it that same day. They had to retrace their steps. The regiment however managed to take Wilshofen; there it crossed the Weser, burned the bridge and retired to Dulmen without allowing themselves to be attacked by the light troops who were harrassing them. They reached Osnabruck and joined the army of the Comte de Clermont who had replaced Richelieu in command. The generals considered the regiment too weakened to continue the campaign and sent it back to France.

The Gardes Lorraines stayed in Lunéville until 1761. They returned to Germany that year and were stationed with the army of the Prince de Soubise. On the 3rd July, in the combat of Werle, the elite companies stood out in the attack on the mill and chateau of Schaffhausen. The regiment also served in the campaign in Germany in 1762 and at the peace came to Bitche. In May 1763 the first battalion went into garrison in Luneville and the second in Metz.

And this was the uniform in the SYW:

Thursday, 3 June 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 20 von Zastrow

Chefs: Major General Berend Asmus von Zastrow to 20th May 1757; Major General August Gottlieb von Bornstedt to 7th April 1759; Major General Ludwig Karl von Kalckstein to 2nd April 1778

First raised 1674 [according to Bleckwenn; 1689 according to Dorn and Engelmann] as garrison in Magdeburg

In the Seven Years War:

With the King's army in 1756 the regiment took part in the capture of Teschen Castle in September, and the grenadiers and first battalion distinguished themselves in the final advance on the town of Lobositz on October 1st (according to Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition - henceforth AFG1 - the grenadiers lost about 30% casualties). Marching into Bohemia again in 1757 the regiment was at the taking of the city of Aussig and there lost its chef Major General von Zastrow to a Croat attack. Having been at the siege of Prague the regiment then endured the defeat at Kolin on 18th June as part of the Pannewitz Brigade. Having attacked Croats at Chozenitz by the command of General Mannstein the second battalion pursued too far towards the Kamajka Heights and had to be relieved by the first battalion. Losses totaled 800 (around 50% as confirmed by AFG1).The grenadiers went to Rossbach with the King and the regiment itself to the defeat at Breslau under the Duke of Bevern on the 22nd November. Only one battalion remained to fight at Leuthen on December 5th.

In the summer of 1758 the regiment took part in the attack on Olmütz. The grenadiers advanced towards Franconia while the musketeer battalions were at the defeat at Hochkirch on October 14th. Sent by the king to counterattack west of the village they were surrounded by the Austrians and driven back with the loss of 500 men (AFG1 suggests at least 45% casualties).

Summer 1759 was spent in camp at Schmottseiffen. The grenadiers were at Kunersdorf (AFG1 suggests around 45% casualties) and the fight at Korbitz on September 21st, fighting well at both. The Magdeburg area was its main recruiting ground and the regiment was able to replace all losses.

With Prince Heinrich from 1760 (the grenadiers only were at Liegnitz) the regiment fought in the Ramin Brigade at Torgau on November 3rd, losing 600 men in the advance on the Süptitz Heights, being driven back and having to endure many casualties while stationary under fire.

In 1761 the regiment was on the Mulde and in 1762 under its chef Major General von Stutterheim stormed the fortifications in the northern Spittelwald; an abatis was taken by 300 volunteers under Captain Georg Dietrich von Pfuhl, who was awarded the Pour-le-merite.

 And this was the uniform in 1756:


Sunday, 16 May 2021

Flags of French Regiment Bretagne

This is a short diversion from the Prussian Leuthen flags project back to my favourite French flags.

 Bretagne was first raised in 1644 by Cardinal Mazarin; it took the name of the Province of Bretagne in 1658. 2 battalions. Ranked 29th in the Seven Years War.

The flag detail is taken from the 1757 French Manuscript drawing; the Colonel's flag is unique, as it has no white cross but only the arms of Brittany and the motto above. The motto changed in 1757 from Potius Mori Quam Vinci [Better To Die Than Be Conquered] to Potius Mori Quam Faedari [Better To Die Than Be Dishonoured]. I have posted both variants of the flags.

This is my translation of the text from Susane Vol.5:

In 1755 the regiment was at the camp of Valence and in 1756 it took part in the expedition to Minorca. Here it was particularly distinguished in the attack on Fort Marlborough [Fort St Philip?] at Port Mahon. Captain of grenadiers Saint-Alby and Lieutenant Dupérier were killed in the attack. Captain Bellegarde and another lieutenant were wounded. After the taking of Mahon, which led to the complete surrender of the island, Regiment Bretagne re-embarked for France. It was sent in 1757 to the army of Marshal d'Estrées, was at the battle of Hastenbeck on 24th July and then marched to the conquest of Hanover. It was at the taking of Minden and Hanover, and pursued the enemy army to Closterseven. In January 1758 it was sent to the area round Brême with the Duc de Broglie; but this general, feeling too weak to attempt anything, went on the defensive. Bretagne occupied the cantonment of Burghausen. On the 23rd February a Prussian column came to threaten the small town of Hoya which had a bridge over the River Weser. The two companies of grenadiers and one hundred fusiliers of Bretagne went to the rescue of the Gardes Lorraines who were garrisoning Hoya. As soon as they arrived they were positioned beyond the bridge around a sort of chateau. During this time a party of troops of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick had crossed the Weser on rafts above Hoya and came to attack the French in flank and rear, while the rest of the Prussian army attacked them frontally. The companies of Bretagne, isolated beyond the bridge, put up a magnificent fight but were at last obliged to surrender,  by a capitulation which, because of their courage, was most honourable. After this affair the regiment retreated to Osnabruck then the Lower Rhine and was employed guarding the Dutch frontier from Xanten up to the Fort of Skencke. It was later sent to the coast and spent the years 1759 and 1760 there. It returned to the Army of Germany in 1761 and took a distinguished part in the combat of Werle on the 3rd July [?]. The regiment stood out again on the 23rd July 1762 in the action which took place around the River Fulda [combat of Lutterberg]. Captain du Portal and a lieutenant were wounded there. On returning to France the regiment went into garrison at Fort-Louis du Rhin.

 And this is the uniform in 1756:

Saturday, 8 May 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 34 Prince Ferdinand von Preussen

First raised 1740 for Frederick's younger brother Ferdinand who commanded it throughout the Seven Years War.


In 1756 IR34 was part of the King's army that surrounded the Saxons at Pirna. In January 1757 it was one of 38 regiments whose companies were strengthened by 30 men each. From May 2nd the regiment and its grenadiers were stationed on the west side of Prague as part of that city's encirclement by the Prussians, and was not present at the battles of Prague and Kolin.The grenadiers suffered heavy casualties at the battle of Moys where Winterfeld was killed on September 7th and then fought in the defeat at Breslau on 22nd November. There General von Schulze was killed and Prince Ferdinand grabbed a flag and led the regiment in a fierce, if unavailing, counterattack. Under Zieten it was with the army at Leuthen, where its single remaining battalion fought on the left wing of the second line.

In 1758 it was at the failed siege of Olmütz and then on June 30th helped defend the wagon train at Domstadtl, managing to save some of the wagons from the Austrian attack. From August that year it was with the Margrave Karl and then joined the King in Dresden on September 11th.  At Hochkirch with Retzow's Corps it helped cover the army's retreat.

In 1759 the regiment was encamped at Schmottseiffen but was not at Kunersdorf.

In 1760 the grenadiers fought a bitter last stand at Landeshut with Fouqué on June 23rd; the survivors were made prisoner. At Liegnitz on August 15th the regiment was part of the counterattack made with the formerly disgraced regiment Anhalt-Bernburg, which redeemed itself by defeating the main Austrian attack with heavy losses. (IR34 suffered at least 60% casualties - Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition.) The remnants of the regiment then went to Breslau. Frederick praised the regiment's courage in a proclamation and awarded five Pour-le-merite medals, plus a hundred gold pieces to each captain.

In late October 1761 the regiment went to Pomerania where it took part in "the luckless campaign" to the end of the year.

The regiment gave distinguished service at the siege of Schweidnitz from August 8th to October 8th where a captain and two lieutenants were awarded the Pour-le-merite. At the end of the war in 1763 the composition of the regiment was: 1230 native Prussians, 127 Saxons and 566 foreigners.

 And this was the uniform in 1756:


Friday, 30 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 10 von Knobloch

[The flags are perhaps not some of the more attractive or complex Prussian flags, but the regiment certainly had an "exciting" war and was very highly regarded by Frederick. If I do only the more attractive flags at first I would have to end with a rather big swathe of the "boring" ones!]

The regiment was first raised in 1683.

Chefs in the Seven Years War were: Colonel Dietrich Erhard von Knobloch, later Major General to the 12th May 1757; Major General Gottlob Ernst von Pannwitz to the 10th February 1759; Major General Friedrich Wilhelm von der Mosel to 1768

IR 10 was with the King's army in the invasion of Saxony in 1756 but not at Lobositz. At the battle of Prague on May 6th 1757 it was part of Keith's Corps which was to the west of Prague, securing communications for the army. When the King lifted the siege of Prague on June 19th Keith's troops went back to Leitmeritz. The grenadiers of IR10 (9/10), who had fought at Kolin (with around 30% casualties - Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition henceforth AFG1), were captured defending the town of Gabel. In August the regiment was part of the corps that went to Silesia with the Duke of Braunschweig-Bevern. It fought at Moys on September 7th when Frederick's close friend and eminence grise Winterfeldt was killed, quite possibly shot in the back by his own men from infantry regiment 32 Tresckow, which was largely made up of Catholics from Upper Silesia. On 22nd November the regiment fought in the defeat of Breslau and was then at Leuthen on December 5th. There, along with the Guard, it took part in repeated attacks on the churchyard at Leuthen, the main Austrian strong point, and lost 12 officers and 741 men (which according to AFG1 was distributed evenly between the 2 Battalions at around 50% losses each). The king praised the regiment's conduct most highly. The regiment ended the year at the siege of Breslau on December 19th.

In 1758 the regiment marched with the King's army to besiege Olmütz from June 1st to July 1st. The grenadiers were part of the force protecting the move back to Troppau, and were attacked from June 28th at Gundersdorf and Domstadtl. It stayed behind in Silesia with the Margrave Karl when the King went to Zorndorf and then joined Fouqué's Corps which was used to secure the main army's left wing while the King was encamped at Schmottseiffen.

In 1760 Fouqué's Corps had only 12,000 men including the 1st Battalion of IR10, after various units were transferred away. The 2nd Battalion was in Neisse and the grenadiers with Prince Heinrich's Corps until Freiberg in 1762. On June 17th 1760 Fouqué took up a fortified position at Landeshut but was then surrounded by an Austrian force under Laudon three times the size of his own. On the night of June 23rd Fouqué's force was attacked from two sides. Laudon reported that: "Height after height had to be torn away from the Prussians by bitter counterthrusts, one mountain after another, the entire withdrawal in the best order, step by step". Repeated demands to surrender went unheeded. IR10's 1st Battalion's surviving 328 men were captured. The King compared the defeat at Landeshut to the Greek fight at Thermopylae. (See Duffy By Force of Arms for a detailed account of Landeshut.)

Brought back up to strength, IR10 fought at Burkersdorf on July 21st 1762, its officers receiving 2 Pour-le-merite medals for their courage attacking the north slope of the position.

Christopher Duffy in his Army of Frederick the Great says this was: "another good Westphalian regiment, and notable for the enthusiasm of its cantonists. At the beginning of the Seven Years War Frederick questioned whether it would fight well against the French; an officer put his mind at rest, citing the superiority of "pumpernickel and Westphalian ham" over the "cakes and frogs' legs" of the French. It was very highly rated by Frederick in his somewhat capricious assessment of his army's performance in the 1760s.

And this was the musketeer uniform in 1756:

Monday, 26 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 46 von Württemberg

This was a fusilier regiment, first raised 1743. Chef to 1757 was Colonel Carl Eugen, Hereditary Prince of Württemberg, later Lieutenant General and reigning Duke. In 1756 the actual field commander was Colonel Christian Ludwig von Pfuel, later Major General. He was replaced on 18th November 1756 by Major General Emanuel von Schöning, who died on the 16th May 1757 of wounds received at the battle of Prague. His successor in May 1757 was Colonel Johann Albrecht von Bülow, who had been chef since the 26th December 1756 and was later a Lieutenant General.


In 1756 IR46 was mobilised to join the Prussian Corps in Pomerania as a reserve unit. It moved to Lusatia on December 7th. It was one of the units not enlarged on January 9th 1757 but remained at its original strength of 1320 men. At Prague on May 6th the 1st Battalion was on the left flank, the 2nd Battalion part of the force that surrounded the city; both battalions suffered heavy losses. (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition (henceforth AFG1)) gives the losses of the 2nd battalion as around 50% and the grenadier battalion 8/46 as 25%.) On July 15th the 2nd Battalion and the grenadiers were captured after the fall of Gabel. From mid-August the 1st Battalion marched to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and was at the defeat of Breslau on the 22nd November. Joining the King at Parchwitz, the 1st Battalion fought at Leuthen as part of the second line of the right wing under General Bülow. Losses were around 15% (AFG1).

In 1758 the prisoners were exchanged and those who had not deserted returned to the regiment. From late March to April 16th the regiment participated in the siege of Schweidnitz, then from the beginning of May was at the abortive siege of Olmütz with the grenadiers, retreating to Silesia with the army after the debacle of Domstadtl. At Zorndorf on August 25th the regiment was on the right of Kanitz's left wing of the army which veered to the right and was only saved by an attack on the Russians by Seydlitz's cavalry wing; in this very bloody battle the regiment lost around 25% and the grenadiers (8/46) 30% (AFG1). When the left wing fell back the King tried to rally them with a regimental flag and his drawn sword. Under Wedell on September 28th the regiment was part of the force that took Fehrbellin from the Swedes to protect Berlin. The grenadiers were at the defeat of Hochkirch on the 14th October and lost 40% of their numbers (AFG1).

In 1759 it was part of Prince Heinrich's Corps that advanced into Franconia to June. Marching to Kunersdorf on 31st July, in the battle there of 12th August it suffered heavy losses (more than 35% (AFG1)) attacking the Grosser Spitzberg.

On June 23rd 1760 IR46 fought heroically to the bitter end at Fouqué's defeat at Landeshut; few survived to escape and now no prisoners were being exchanged. (There is an excellent detailed account of the battle in Duffy, By Force of Arms.) In 1761 and 1762 the remains of the regiment were stationed in Breslau and participated in the siege of Schweidnitz. At the end of the war in 1763 the regiment was filled up with the survivors of the Heer Free Battalion, who were largely Swiss deserters from the French army.

 And this is the fusilier uniform in 1756:

P.S. There was a slight glitch with these flags so I have redone them and reposted; the problem will not have made much difference to any flags printed from the glitchy version but it is good to get these things right.

Wednesday, 21 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 35 Prince Heinrich

First raised June 1740 specifically as a regiment for Frederick's brother Heinrich (Henry) who was its chef until his death in 1802, apparently.

In 1756 IR 35 was part of the Prussian force surrounding and containing the Saxon army at Pirna. The 1st Battalion was attacked at Hirschfeld on February 20th 1757 and two captains received awards of the Pour-le-Merite as a consequence of their bravery. In January 1757 the 2nd Battalion was mauled in an attack on its quarters in Ostritz. Early in April the regiment joined Bevern's corps at Reichenberg; for its distinguished conduct at the battle on the 21st the regiment was honoured with the Grenadiers' March. The restored 2nd Battalion led the left attack under Bevern at Prague in May and was involved in the bloody battle by the Rokenitz Brook. Casualties for the whole regiment were around 20% (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition henceforth AFG1). At Kolin on the 18th June, in the second line of the left wing, it was part of the attack under Tresckow on the Kamajka Heights where the attack was led by the king himself with drawn sword. Some time later its attack with the bayonet broke through the Austrian and Saxon line south-west of Krzeczhorz but the Saxon cavalry then scattered the 1st battalion. The regiment lost fully 50% in casualties (AFG1). According to Dorn and Engelmann at the Prussian defeat at Breslau on the 22nd November the 2nd Battalion, on the left wing under Zieten, twice recaptured the village of Kleinburg but this conflicts with the account in Kronoskaf; Duffy's detailed relation of the battle in his book on Rossbach and Leuthen is disappointingly vague on the actions of individual Prussian regiments so does not resolve the problem. At Leuthen on December 5th the 1st Battalion was on the left wing and in the second line and is reported to have performed well.

At the siege of Domstadtl in May to July 1758 First Lieutenant von Lattorff serving with the regiment won the Pour-le-Merite. On June 30th, when Domstadtl was attacked, the grenadiers succeeded in escorting one hundred pay and ammunition wagons to safety. By now, having had further losses, the regiment was too weak for further employment until recruits could be had but it had no recruiting area of its own and Saxony was not providing enough.

By the summer of 1759 both battalions had been made up to strength and the regiment was with the King's army at Schmottseiffen. On 12th August both grenadiers and the whole regiment were at Kunersdorf; after repeated attacks on the batteries on the Grosse Spitzberg failed, the regiment was suffering from exhaustion, the heat and lack of ammunition. The King himself, having had two horses shot from under him and with bullet holes in his coat, tried to prevent the regiment falling back. He grabbed a flag and declared: "I must do my duty here like any other!" but an attack by Austrian cavalry decided the battle. The grenadiers lost 50%, the two battalions of the regiment itself at least 35% casualties (AFG1). The regiment is supposed to have been the last to leave the battlefield.

In 1760 the regiment was with Prince Heinrich's corps and helped take the heights of Hoch-Giersdorf and 17 cannon on September 17th. At Torgau on November 3rd it was on the left flank with the Queiss brigade; the second attack on the Süptitz Heights ground to a halt. Cavalry attack from both flanks caused heavy losses.

In 1761 the regiment was in the camp of Bunzelwitz with the King and finally in 1762 took part in the capture of Schweidnitz from August to October.

At the May review of 1764 the King praised his brother Heinrich as "the only general who made no mistakes".

And here is the uniform in 1756:

Coming next; the flags of Prussian Fusilier Regiment 46 and possibly the standards of Dragoon Regiment 1.