Friday, 18 June 2021

An Austro-Hungarian flag to commemorate the anniversary of the battle of Kolin 18th June 1757...

I felt I mustn't miss noting that today is the anniversary of the Austro-Hungarian victory over the Prussians at Kolin on 18th June 1757. Here's my version of a flag of the Grenze light infantry, the specialist troops from the Borders of the Empire; although in the War of the Austrian Succession they tended to dominate the kleine krieg, by the Seven Years War the Prussians were at least their equals and some sources suggest they beat them at their own game.

The flag is a legacy version from the War of the Austrian Succession, with the name of Maria Theresa's father Charles VI; at the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession there was neither the money nor the time to reflag the Austro-Hungarian army. I wonder if any of these survived into the Seven Years War?

For detailed accounts of the various units, Kronoskaf is, of course, the place to go.


Monday, 14 June 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Regiment 39 Prinz Friedrich Franz von Braunschweig

Chef Prinz Friedrich Franz von Braunschweig, from 26th December 1745. Colonel as of 1st March 1751 and later Major General. Died Hochkirch 14th October 1758, aged 26. No chef from 1758-1763.

First raised 1740 as the House regiment of Braunschweig, which it was for 30 years.


In 1756 the regiment was kept on the old establishment of 1220 men. It was mobilised on July 25th in Far Pomerania under Lieutenant General the Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt to reinforce the Prussian Corps there. At Prague on 6th May 1757 the regiment was on the right wing, second line under Hautcharmoy and took part in the breakthrough south of Kej after Winterfeldt's first attack was thrown back and Winterfeldt wounded. Prinz Franz was at its head when it followed IR18 in storming across the long causeway towards Mount Tabor and into the fighting in the Rokenitz Brook. Suffering heavy losses it advanced to near the city of Prague by the end of the battle. The King greatly approved. (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition (henceforth AFG1) shows losses of about 30%.) The grenadiers were at Kolin on the 18th June and lost their commander, as well as about 25% rank and file as casualties (AFG1). IR39 joined Bevern for the push into Lusatia and Silesia and one battalion fought in the defeat at Breslau on November 22nd. The 1st battalion of IR39 fought at Leuthen on the second line of the right wing, losing about 25% casualties (AFG1) but capturing 14 enemy cannon.

In 1758 the regiment was with the King besieging Olmütz. On returning from Moravia it defended the vehicle park from repeated attacks. At Hochkirch on October 14th it was with Retzow's corps on the left flank and helped protect the army's withdrawal. Its chef Prinz Friedrich Franz was killed by a cannonball on the right wing of the army and his horse with its very highly decorative saddle ran between the armies in panic for some time after his death. Lack of recruits prevented the regiment being further employed that year.

In 1759 IR39 returned to the King's army but saw little action at Landeshut or Schmottseiffen.

In 1760 both battalions joined Prinz Heinrich's army, which gathered in May between Sagan and Lauban. The grenadiers lost 389 men at Liegnitz on 15th August; they were stationed on the left wing. (AFG1 shows about 50% casualties.) On September 17th, along with IR35, the regiment was involved in a fierce battle at Hochgiersdorf and captured 17 cannon.

In the first months of 1761 IR39 was with the King's army in Saxony, and surrounded by six times the number of enemies at Altenburg but managed to escape to Leipzig without loss. After being in the camp at Bunzelwitz the grenadiers took 5000 wagons and 1800 prisoners at Gostyn. The rest of the regiment followed to Pomerania on November 14th and took the fortifications at Spie on December 12th. An exhausting march to Saxony via Stettin followed. The regiment was stationed in Neisse from April 1762. In 1763 it consisted of 561 native Prussians, 211 Saxons and 1098 "foreigners". It was one of the regiments most highly favoured by the King after the war. Christopher Duffy (AFG1) says: "Almost three-quarters of the complement were foreigners. Fought well in action but suffered heavily from desertion. Severe losses in Pomerania 1761".

 And this was the uniform in 1756:


Thursday, 10 June 2021

Rossbach French Flags Project - Regiment Mailly

I somehow managed to miss this large 4 battalion regiment that was prominent in the Rossbach debacle; it was at the head of the right hand French column and was given a very rough time by Prussian artillery and musketry, as the Susane text below shows with its long list of officer casualties and mention of the loss of 700 other ranks.

Mailly was first raised in 1589 but only admitted into the French army in 1610. 4 battalions strong, so a brigade in itself. The flags are simple as befits one of the older French regiments. Ranked 11th in the Seven Years War.

And this is my translation of the text from Susane Volume 4:

In 1756, when the war at sea began again with the British, the regiment was part of the forces camped near Le Havre and at the end of the campaigning season was based in the towns of Beauvais, Noyon, Soissons and Senlis. It was at Cambrai in 1757, when it received the order to join the army being assembled by the Marshal d'Estrées on the Lower Rhine. Soon after it was at the battle of Hastenbeck where it suffered the loss of 150 men. Captains Durenaud, de Montbel, de Vandires, La Molère, Du Bosse and three lieutenants were wounded there. In the month of October, it joined the army of Saxony, commanded by the Prince de Soubise, and arrived just in time to take part in the disaster of Rossbach. It occupied on this fatal day the right of the second line of infantry behind Piémont, and suffered the same fate as this old corps. The regiment lost 40 officers and 700 soldiers killed, wounded or prisoners, although the regiment had left more than two-thirds of its number in places and in the hospitals of Hanover and Lower Saxony. Lieutenant-Colonel de Boisrenard was wounded and taken, Major La Porterie killed; Captains Monyefroy, Vauvert and Villiers were killed, as were lieutenants Villiers de Beuvran, Laporte, Rique, Dusentre and Girondin. Among the wounded, who almost all were taken prisoner, were Captains Tréville, Saint-Léger, Saint-Féréol, Maillet, Montbel, Boisrenaud, La Mothe, Milly, Durenaud, Preville, Galembert, La Meillerie, Saint-Denis, Bouvet, du Noiret, du Pouerçon, Perrault, Maréchal, Romme, Boudon, Baudemont, du Bosse, Vandières et Dupuis, and 13 lieutenants.

The battalion commander of La Garrigue, who had been detached with 200 men, 15 days before, to guard the lines of communication and the army's magazines, rendered a great service in gathering together the runaways and in covering the retreat. He also saved 120 wagons and rallied 6000 men with whom he was able to evacuate the magazines and the hospitals.

After the disaster of Rossbach the regiment was sent to Hanover which it left in January 1758 to go to Hildesheim, then to Paderborn. It was at Wesel in March and a short time later returned to France. It was employed until 1761 in the defence of the coast of Brittany and had its headquarters in Brest. The regiment was then called Talaru.

In 1759 it repelled an attempted landing by the British in the Bay of Cancalle, and suffered a very strong cannonade from Admiral Harvey's fleet, which wished to capture 14 frigates taking refuge in the port of Conquet. A little while later, a detachment of 200 men, embarked on the fleet of Marshal de Conflans, found itself in naval combat in Belle-Isle. There it lost several officers, among others captains de Boisselet and de Beuvran.

In 1761 the regiment left Saint-Omer, where it had spent the bad season, to rejoin the army on the Lower Rhine. It camped at first below Wesel, took part, on the 21st June in the attack on Luynen, and found itself in the combats of the 15th and 16th July, near to Vellingshausen. It shortly after left the army of the Prince de Soubise and joined that of Marschal de Broglie. On arriving at the camp of Grebenstein, it was ordered, in September, to occupy the forest of Sabbaborg to cover the right of the army. There it was attacked frontally by 1600 of the enemy, while a column of 15,000 of the allies tried to go round to the rear. In this critical position the regiment executed a march of 4 leagues without being caught, and gave, by this splendid manoeuvre, the time for the Comte de Stainville to retreat to the entrenched camp of Cassel.

Mailly, under the name of Chatellux, was in the campaign of 1762 with the same army without taking part in any important operation, and returned to France in March 1763. An ordonnance of 10th December 1762 had changed its name from that of its colonel and given it the title of the province of Guyenne, which until then had been held by a regiment created under Louis XIV, and reformed that year.

And this was the uniform in 1756:

Friday, 4 June 2021

Flags of French Regiment Gardes Lorraines

First raised in Piedmont in 1643 as the guard of Prince Thomas of Savoy, Prince of Carignan. Given by the Prince of Carignan to Louis XIV in 1659 and took the name of Soissons. Took the name of Perche from 1691 to 1744 and was then absorbed into the Regiment of Gardes Lorraines as its first battalion.  2 battalions. Ranked 30th in the SYW.

My version of the flags is based closely on that depicted in the 1757 Manuscript.

And next my translation of the text in Susane Volume 5 on the regiment in the SYW:

The regiment took part in the first gathering of French troops at Wesel in 1757, from 27th April to the 21st of May. On the 24th July it fought at Hastenbeck, and then took part in the taking of Minden and Hanover, and the pursuit of the Anglo-Hanoverian army to Zell. In January 1758, the Convention of Closterseven by which this army was supposed no longer to serve, having been violated, the Gardes Lorraines marched to Brèmes, attacked the Hanoverian vanguard at Riddershade and tool possession of this post. They then rallied the corps of the Duke of Broglie who entrusted them with the guard of the town of Hoya on the Weser. On the 23rd February the regiment was attacked there by the whole army of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. Le Comte de Chabot, who commanded at Hoya, evacuated and burned the suburb beyond the Weser, and sent an aide de camp to the Duc de Broglie to ask for reinforcements. But meanwhile the Prince Ferdinand crossed the Weser on rafts with part of his army and came to attack the Gardes Lorraines by all the access ways of this open town. The resistance was long and vigorous; the Chevalier de Beavau and the Lieutenant-Colonel de Chastellar, of the same family as the old Sallières, did all that it was possible to do; but it was necessary to give up the place. The regiment, which had lost 15 officers and had only 300 men fit to fight, retreated towards Brème. On arriving at the gates of that town, they discovered that the enemy had occupied it that same day. They had to retrace their steps. The regiment however managed to take Wilshofen; there it crossed the Weser, burned the bridge and retired to Dulmen without allowing themselves to be attacked by the light troops who were harrassing them. They reached Osnabruck and joined the army of the Comte de Clermont who had replaced Richelieu in command. The generals considered the regiment too weakened to continue the campaign and sent it back to France.

The Gardes Lorraines stayed in Lunéville until 1761. They returned to Germany that year and were stationed with the army of the Prince de Soubise. On the 3rd July, in the combat of Werle, the elite companies stood out in the attack on the mill and chateau of Schaffhausen. The regiment also served in the campaign in Germany in 1762 and at the peace came to Bitche. In May 1763 the first battalion went into garrison in Luneville and the second in Metz.

And this was the uniform in the SYW:

Thursday, 3 June 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 20 von Zastrow

Chefs: Major General Berend Asmus von Zastrow to 20th May 1757; Major General August Gottlieb von Bornstedt to 7th April 1759; Major General Ludwig Karl von Kalckstein to 2nd April 1778

First raised 1674 [according to Bleckwenn; 1689 according to Dorn and Engelmann] as garrison in Magdeburg

In the Seven Years War:

With the King's army in 1756 the regiment took part in the capture of Teschen Castle in September, and the grenadiers and first battalion distinguished themselves in the final advance on the town of Lobositz on October 1st (according to Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition - henceforth AFG1 - the grenadiers lost about 30% casualties). Marching into Bohemia again in 1757 the regiment was at the taking of the city of Aussig and there lost its chef Major General von Zastrow to a Croat attack. Having been at the siege of Prague the regiment then endured the defeat at Kolin on 18th June as part of the Pannewitz Brigade. Having attacked Croats at Chozenitz by the command of General Mannstein the second battalion pursued too far towards the Kamajka Heights and had to be relieved by the first battalion. Losses totaled 800 (around 50% as confirmed by AFG1).The grenadiers went to Rossbach with the King and the regiment itself to the defeat at Breslau under the Duke of Bevern on the 22nd November. Only one battalion remained to fight at Leuthen on December 5th.

In the summer of 1758 the regiment took part in the attack on Olmütz. The grenadiers advanced towards Franconia while the musketeer battalions were at the defeat at Hochkirch on October 14th. Sent by the king to counterattack west of the village they were surrounded by the Austrians and driven back with the loss of 500 men (AFG1 suggests at least 45% casualties).

Summer 1759 was spent in camp at Schmottseiffen. The grenadiers were at Kunersdorf (AFG1 suggests around 45% casualties) and the fight at Korbitz on September 21st, fighting well at both. The Magdeburg area was its main recruiting ground and the regiment was able to replace all losses.

With Prince Heinrich from 1760 (the grenadiers only were at Liegnitz) the regiment fought in the Ramin Brigade at Torgau on November 3rd, losing 600 men in the advance on the Süptitz Heights, being driven back and having to endure many casualties while stationary under fire.

In 1761 the regiment was on the Mulde and in 1762 under its chef Major General von Stutterheim stormed the fortifications in the northern Spittelwald; an abatis was taken by 300 volunteers under Captain Georg Dietrich von Pfuhl, who was awarded the Pour-le-merite.

 And this was the uniform in 1756:


Sunday, 16 May 2021

Flags of French Regiment Bretagne

This is a short diversion from the Prussian Leuthen flags project back to my favourite French flags.

 Bretagne was first raised in 1644 by Cardinal Mazarin; it took the name of the Province of Bretagne in 1658. 2 battalions. Ranked 29th in the Seven Years War.

The flag detail is taken from the 1757 French Manuscript drawing; the Colonel's flag is unique, as it has no white cross but only the arms of Brittany and the motto above. The motto changed in 1757 from Potius Mori Quam Vinci [Better To Die Than Be Conquered] to Potius Mori Quam Faedari [Better To Die Than Be Dishonoured]. I have posted both variants of the flags.

This is my translation of the text from Susane Vol.5:

In 1755 the regiment was at the camp of Valence and in 1756 it took part in the expedition to Minorca. Here it was particularly distinguished in the attack on Fort Marlborough [Fort St Philip?] at Port Mahon. Captain of grenadiers Saint-Alby and Lieutenant Dupérier were killed in the attack. Captain Bellegarde and another lieutenant were wounded. After the taking of Mahon, which led to the complete surrender of the island, Regiment Bretagne re-embarked for France. It was sent in 1757 to the army of Marshal d'Estrées, was at the battle of Hastenbeck on 24th July and then marched to the conquest of Hanover. It was at the taking of Minden and Hanover, and pursued the enemy army to Closterseven. In January 1758 it was sent to the area round Brême with the Duc de Broglie; but this general, feeling too weak to attempt anything, went on the defensive. Bretagne occupied the cantonment of Burghausen. On the 23rd February a Prussian column came to threaten the small town of Hoya which had a bridge over the River Weser. The two companies of grenadiers and one hundred fusiliers of Bretagne went to the rescue of the Gardes Lorraines who were garrisoning Hoya. As soon as they arrived they were positioned beyond the bridge around a sort of chateau. During this time a party of troops of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick had crossed the Weser on rafts above Hoya and came to attack the French in flank and rear, while the rest of the Prussian army attacked them frontally. The companies of Bretagne, isolated beyond the bridge, put up a magnificent fight but were at last obliged to surrender,  by a capitulation which, because of their courage, was most honourable. After this affair the regiment retreated to Osnabruck then the Lower Rhine and was employed guarding the Dutch frontier from Xanten up to the Fort of Skencke. It was later sent to the coast and spent the years 1759 and 1760 there. It returned to the Army of Germany in 1761 and took a distinguished part in the combat of Werle on the 3rd July [?]. The regiment stood out again on the 23rd July 1762 in the action which took place around the River Fulda [combat of Lutterberg]. Captain du Portal and a lieutenant were wounded there. On returning to France the regiment went into garrison at Fort-Louis du Rhin.

 And this is the uniform in 1756:

Saturday, 8 May 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 34 Prince Ferdinand von Preussen

First raised 1740 for Frederick's younger brother Ferdinand who commanded it throughout the Seven Years War.


In 1756 IR34 was part of the King's army that surrounded the Saxons at Pirna. In January 1757 it was one of 38 regiments whose companies were strengthened by 30 men each. From May 2nd the regiment and its grenadiers were stationed on the west side of Prague as part of that city's encirclement by the Prussians, and was not present at the battles of Prague and Kolin.The grenadiers suffered heavy casualties at the battle of Moys where Winterfeld was killed on September 7th and then fought in the defeat at Breslau on 22nd November. There General von Schulze was killed and Prince Ferdinand grabbed a flag and led the regiment in a fierce, if unavailing, counterattack. Under Zieten it was with the army at Leuthen, where its single remaining battalion fought on the left wing of the second line.

In 1758 it was at the failed siege of Olmütz and then on June 30th helped defend the wagon train at Domstadtl, managing to save some of the wagons from the Austrian attack. From August that year it was with the Margrave Karl and then joined the King in Dresden on September 11th.  At Hochkirch with Retzow's Corps it helped cover the army's retreat.

In 1759 the regiment was encamped at Schmottseiffen but was not at Kunersdorf.

In 1760 the grenadiers fought a bitter last stand at Landeshut with Fouqué on June 23rd; the survivors were made prisoner. At Liegnitz on August 15th the regiment was part of the counterattack made with the formerly disgraced regiment Anhalt-Bernburg, which redeemed itself by defeating the main Austrian attack with heavy losses. (IR34 suffered at least 60% casualties - Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition.) The remnants of the regiment then went to Breslau. Frederick praised the regiment's courage in a proclamation and awarded five Pour-le-merite medals, plus a hundred gold pieces to each captain.

In late October 1761 the regiment went to Pomerania where it took part in "the luckless campaign" to the end of the year.

The regiment gave distinguished service at the siege of Schweidnitz from August 8th to October 8th where a captain and two lieutenants were awarded the Pour-le-merite. At the end of the war in 1763 the composition of the regiment was: 1230 native Prussians, 127 Saxons and 566 foreigners.

 And this was the uniform in 1756:


Friday, 30 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 10 von Knobloch

[The flags are perhaps not some of the more attractive or complex Prussian flags, but the regiment certainly had an "exciting" war and was very highly regarded by Frederick. If I do only the more attractive flags at first I would have to end with a rather big swathe of the "boring" ones!]

The regiment was first raised in 1683.

Chefs in the Seven Years War were: Colonel Dietrich Erhard von Knobloch, later Major General to the 12th May 1757; Major General Gottlob Ernst von Pannwitz to the 10th February 1759; Major General Friedrich Wilhelm von der Mosel to 1768

IR 10 was with the King's army in the invasion of Saxony in 1756 but not at Lobositz. At the battle of Prague on May 6th 1757 it was part of Keith's Corps which was to the west of Prague, securing communications for the army. When the King lifted the siege of Prague on June 19th Keith's troops went back to Leitmeritz. The grenadiers of IR10 (9/10), who had fought at Kolin (with around 30% casualties - Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition henceforth AFG1), were captured defending the town of Gabel. In August the regiment was part of the corps that went to Silesia with the Duke of Braunschweig-Bevern. It fought at Moys on September 7th when Frederick's close friend and eminence grise Winterfeldt was killed, quite possibly shot in the back by his own men from infantry regiment 32 Tresckow, which was largely made up of Catholics from Upper Silesia. On 22nd November the regiment fought in the defeat of Breslau and was then at Leuthen on December 5th. There, along with the Guard, it took part in repeated attacks on the churchyard at Leuthen, the main Austrian strong point, and lost 12 officers and 741 men (which according to AFG1 was distributed evenly between the 2 Battalions at around 50% losses each). The king praised the regiment's conduct most highly. The regiment ended the year at the siege of Breslau on December 19th.

In 1758 the regiment marched with the King's army to besiege Olmütz from June 1st to July 1st. The grenadiers were part of the force protecting the move back to Troppau, and were attacked from June 28th at Gundersdorf and Domstadtl. It stayed behind in Silesia with the Margrave Karl when the King went to Zorndorf and then joined Fouqué's Corps which was used to secure the main army's left wing while the King was encamped at Schmottseiffen.

In 1760 Fouqué's Corps had only 12,000 men including the 1st Battalion of IR10, after various units were transferred away. The 2nd Battalion was in Neisse and the grenadiers with Prince Heinrich's Corps until Freiberg in 1762. On June 17th 1760 Fouqué took up a fortified position at Landeshut but was then surrounded by an Austrian force under Laudon three times the size of his own. On the night of June 23rd Fouqué's force was attacked from two sides. Laudon reported that: "Height after height had to be torn away from the Prussians by bitter counterthrusts, one mountain after another, the entire withdrawal in the best order, step by step". Repeated demands to surrender went unheeded. IR10's 1st Battalion's surviving 328 men were captured. The King compared the defeat at Landeshut to the Greek fight at Thermopylae. (See Duffy By Force of Arms for a detailed account of Landeshut.)

Brought back up to strength, IR10 fought at Burkersdorf on July 21st 1762, its officers receiving 2 Pour-le-merite medals for their courage attacking the north slope of the position.

Christopher Duffy in his Army of Frederick the Great says this was: "another good Westphalian regiment, and notable for the enthusiasm of its cantonists. At the beginning of the Seven Years War Frederick questioned whether it would fight well against the French; an officer put his mind at rest, citing the superiority of "pumpernickel and Westphalian ham" over the "cakes and frogs' legs" of the French. It was very highly rated by Frederick in his somewhat capricious assessment of his army's performance in the 1760s.

And this was the musketeer uniform in 1756:

Monday, 26 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 46 von Württemberg

This was a fusilier regiment, first raised 1743. Chef to 1757 was Colonel Carl Eugen, Hereditary Prince of Württemberg, later Lieutenant General and reigning Duke. In 1756 the actual field commander was Colonel Christian Ludwig von Pfuel, later Major General. He was replaced on 18th November 1756 by Major General Emanuel von Schöning, who died on the 16th May 1757 of wounds received at the battle of Prague. His successor in May 1757 was Colonel Johann Albrecht von Bülow, who had been chef since the 26th December 1756 and was later a Lieutenant General.


In 1756 IR46 was mobilised to join the Prussian Corps in Pomerania as a reserve unit. It moved to Lusatia on December 7th. It was one of the units not enlarged on January 9th 1757 but remained at its original strength of 1320 men. At Prague on May 6th the 1st Battalion was on the left flank, the 2nd Battalion part of the force that surrounded the city; both battalions suffered heavy losses. (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition (henceforth AFG1)) gives the losses of the 2nd battalion as around 50% and the grenadier battalion 8/46 as 25%.) On July 15th the 2nd Battalion and the grenadiers were captured after the fall of Gabel. From mid-August the 1st Battalion marched to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and was at the defeat of Breslau on the 22nd November. Joining the King at Parchwitz, the 1st Battalion fought at Leuthen as part of the second line of the right wing under General Bülow. Losses were around 15% (AFG1).

In 1758 the prisoners were exchanged and those who had not deserted returned to the regiment. From late March to April 16th the regiment participated in the siege of Schweidnitz, then from the beginning of May was at the abortive siege of Olmütz with the grenadiers, retreating to Silesia with the army after the debacle of Domstadtl. At Zorndorf on August 25th the regiment was on the right of Kanitz's left wing of the army which veered to the right and was only saved by an attack on the Russians by Seydlitz's cavalry wing; in this very bloody battle the regiment lost around 25% and the grenadiers (8/46) 30% (AFG1). When the left wing fell back the King tried to rally them with a regimental flag and his drawn sword. Under Wedell on September 28th the regiment was part of the force that took Fehrbellin from the Swedes to protect Berlin. The grenadiers were at the defeat of Hochkirch on the 14th October and lost 40% of their numbers (AFG1).

In 1759 it was part of Prince Heinrich's Corps that advanced into Franconia to June. Marching to Kunersdorf on 31st July, in the battle there of 12th August it suffered heavy losses (more than 35% (AFG1)) attacking the Grosser Spitzberg.

On June 23rd 1760 IR46 fought heroically to the bitter end at Fouqué's defeat at Landeshut; few survived to escape and now no prisoners were being exchanged. (There is an excellent detailed account of the battle in Duffy, By Force of Arms.) In 1761 and 1762 the remains of the regiment were stationed in Breslau and participated in the siege of Schweidnitz. At the end of the war in 1763 the regiment was filled up with the survivors of the Heer Free Battalion, who were largely Swiss deserters from the French army.

 And this is the fusilier uniform in 1756:

P.S. There was a slight glitch with these flags so I have redone them and reposted; the problem will not have made much difference to any flags printed from the glitchy version but it is good to get these things right.

Wednesday, 21 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 35 Prince Heinrich

First raised June 1740 specifically as a regiment for Frederick's brother Heinrich (Henry) who was its chef until his death in 1802, apparently.

In 1756 IR 35 was part of the Prussian force surrounding and containing the Saxon army at Pirna. The 1st Battalion was attacked at Hirschfeld on February 20th 1757 and two captains received awards of the Pour-le-Merite as a consequence of their bravery. In January 1757 the 2nd Battalion was mauled in an attack on its quarters in Ostritz. Early in April the regiment joined Bevern's corps at Reichenberg; for its distinguished conduct at the battle on the 21st the regiment was honoured with the Grenadiers' March. The restored 2nd Battalion led the left attack under Bevern at Prague in May and was involved in the bloody battle by the Rokenitz Brook. Casualties for the whole regiment were around 20% (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition henceforth AFG1). At Kolin on the 18th June, in the second line of the left wing, it was part of the attack under Tresckow on the Kamajka Heights where the attack was led by the king himself with drawn sword. Some time later its attack with the bayonet broke through the Austrian and Saxon line south-west of Krzeczhorz but the Saxon cavalry then scattered the 1st battalion. The regiment lost fully 50% in casualties (AFG1). According to Dorn and Engelmann at the Prussian defeat at Breslau on the 22nd November the 2nd Battalion, on the left wing under Zieten, twice recaptured the village of Kleinburg but this conflicts with the account in Kronoskaf; Duffy's detailed relation of the battle in his book on Rossbach and Leuthen is disappointingly vague on the actions of individual Prussian regiments so does not resolve the problem. At Leuthen on December 5th the 1st Battalion was on the left wing and in the second line and is reported to have performed well.

At the siege of Domstadtl in May to July 1758 First Lieutenant von Lattorff serving with the regiment won the Pour-le-Merite. On June 30th, when Domstadtl was attacked, the grenadiers succeeded in escorting one hundred pay and ammunition wagons to safety. By now, having had further losses, the regiment was too weak for further employment until recruits could be had but it had no recruiting area of its own and Saxony was not providing enough.

By the summer of 1759 both battalions had been made up to strength and the regiment was with the King's army at Schmottseiffen. On 12th August both grenadiers and the whole regiment were at Kunersdorf; after repeated attacks on the batteries on the Grosse Spitzberg failed, the regiment was suffering from exhaustion, the heat and lack of ammunition. The King himself, having had two horses shot from under him and with bullet holes in his coat, tried to prevent the regiment falling back. He grabbed a flag and declared: "I must do my duty here like any other!" but an attack by Austrian cavalry decided the battle. The grenadiers lost 50%, the two battalions of the regiment itself at least 35% casualties (AFG1). The regiment is supposed to have been the last to leave the battlefield.

In 1760 the regiment was with Prince Heinrich's corps and helped take the heights of Hoch-Giersdorf and 17 cannon on September 17th. At Torgau on November 3rd it was on the left flank with the Queiss brigade; the second attack on the Süptitz Heights ground to a halt. Cavalry attack from both flanks caused heavy losses.

In 1761 the regiment was in the camp of Bunzelwitz with the King and finally in 1762 took part in the capture of Schweidnitz from August to October.

At the May review of 1764 the King praised his brother Heinrich as "the only general who made no mistakes".

And here is the uniform in 1756:

Coming next; the flags of Prussian Fusilier Regiment 46 and possibly the standards of Dragoon Regiment 1.

Saturday, 17 April 2021

Prussian Garrison Regiment Flags - A Question...

A recent post on the Seven Years War wargaming page on Facebook which I frequent reminded me of the Prussian garrison regiment flags I posted a long time ago. I posted the flags of regiments 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9 (here: ) but not the rest, and I wondered if there was sufficient interest to justify finishing and posting the remainder. Please let me know in the comments.

I mentioned a while ago that, after someone asked me if I had a Tip Jar, I was thinking of adding a link to BuyMeACoffee, for those of you with loose change burning a hole in your pockets and who wanted to lob some my way. I have now added such a link near the top left of the blog (titled: Make A Small Contribution To My Book Fund!). I hasten to add that this is entirely voluntary on your part, and the flags and uniform templates will continue to be free. But if you would like to help my reference book fund I would be grateful; good books on historical flags tend not to be cheap and if you make a contribution, however small, you will have the satisfaction of knowing that you will have helped the production of yet more flags to be posted on the blog into the future. :-) Thank you.

 Update Sunday 18th April:  The default minimum amount for BMAC seems to be £5 but I have now been able to drop it to £2 as I find my way round the BMAC website! That seems a bit more reasonable for loose change, I think, and might attract more donations...

Monday, 12 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Standards of Kürassier Regiment 1

First raised around 1665. Chef in 1756 was Colonel Wilhelm Dietrich von Buddenbrock, later a Field Marshal. His successor from the 2nd April 1757 was Major General Hans Kaspar von Krockow, who died on the 25th February 1759 of wounds received at Hochkirch. From 28th February 1759  the chef was Major General Gustav Albrecht von Schlabrendorff, who died in 1765.

[I've had these sitting around for some time but cannot promise I'll be rapidly adding all the Prussian cavalry standards to the blog. Eventually, perhaps. Working on the Prussian infantry flags plus those of the French and some others eats up plenty of time! Those of KR1 and the 1st Dragoons were of plain cloth sheets, not the damask of all the other regiments, so are much easier to depict. These are also of the older pattern carried in the previous reign; KRs 1, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11 and 12 all carried the older pattern, as did Dragoon regiments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7.]

In 1756 the regiment was part of Schwerin's Corps in Silesia and saw no serious action until Prague on May 6th 1757. There it was in the front line of the left flank cavalry attack that beat the Austrian cavalry threat with the help of Zieten's command. Losses were about 10-15% (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition). At Kolin on the 18th June (only 442 strong) the regiment was driven back to the Kaiserweg by Austrian cavalry with heavy losses. With the Duke of Bevern in Silesia from the end of August, it was involved in the defeat at Breslau on 22nd November. Joining the King at Parchwitz on 2nd December, it shared in the victory at Leuthen, with 10-15% casualties (Duffy again). In 1758 it was with the King's army, remaining in Silesia after the failed move on Olmütz in August. Although involved in the defeat at Hochkirch in the centre of the position casualties were minimal, apart from its chef von Krockow who was mortally wounded on the right wing. With Prince Henry's Saxon Corps in 1759 it was then sent to the Pomeranian Corps on June 24th and suffered heavy casualties at Kay (Paltzig) against the Russians; its regimental commander Colonel von Wartenburg was killed. Worse was to follow at the defeat of Kunersdorf three weeks later where the regiment lost 107 dead including 12 officers trying to help relieve the pressure on the infantry and then vainly trying to defeat the final great attack by the Austrian and Russian cavalry. At Torgau in 1760 the regiment led Holstein's cavalry attack on the Süptitz Heights, succeeding in driving back the Austrian cavalry despite repeated counter-attacks. In 1761 it served in Eastern Saxony and finally in 1762 fought in the victory of Freiberg under Prince Henry.

And this is the uniform as depicted by Menzel. The hat is of the later bicorne-type with plume whereas in the SYW the tricorne proper was worn:


Saturday, 10 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Infantry Regiment 8 von Amstell 1756; von Geist 1757-9; von Queiss 1759-1769

First raised 1679. Chef in 1756 was Major General Georg Friedrich von Amstell, who was killed in action at Prague on the 6th May 1757. His successor from the 12th December that year was Major General Karl Ferdinand, Baron von Hagen, called Geist, who died on the 19th February 1759 of wounds received at Hochkirch. From 25th February 1759 his replacement was Major General Julius Dietrich von Queiss, who lasted to 1769.

I have been working on an improved, more authentic and more detailed eagle; the one used here is after Bleckwenn's illustrations. In future I shall probably offer two versions of the flags, one with the new eagle but also one with the old, in order to maintain consistency for those who have already printed versions of my previous flags. Eventually I would like to update the older Prussian flags with the new improved eagle but will still offer the old version for those who might prefer it.

At the beginning of the Seven Years War the regiment was kept in reserve as an elite Pomeranian regiment but then sent to Lusatia in December 1756, serving under the Duke of Bevern at the battle of Reichenberg on April 21st 1757. Having joined Schwerin's army the regiment fought at Prague. After Kolin the grenadiers were captured after defending the town of Gabel but released the following spring. Having experienced defeat at the battle of Breslau on 2nd November, the regiment was at Leuthen on 2nd December with the King's army, suffering around 30% casualties, according to Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition. With the King's army again in 1758, the grenadiers suffered heavy casualties at Domstadtl on June 30th. At Zorndorf on 25th August they suffered 193 casualties. Both grenadiers and the rest of the regiment were with the King at Hochkirch on October 14th. When the large battery of 20 12-pounders and 6 field guns at the the south-east corner of the village was lost to the attacking Austrians, Major General von Geist wished to retake it. He was mortally wounded attempting to do so and died on February 19th 1759 from his wounds. The Austrians turned the Prussian guns against their former owners and defeated all attacks with blasts of grapeshot; the First Battalion of IR8 was able only to defend the western edge of the village and its gardens. Losses were around 50% of the two battalions (Duffy). The grenadiers fought on the left wing, facing the Austrians' second attack. They lost nearly 50% in casualties (Duffy).

In 1759 the regiment went with the King's army to the camp at Schmottseiffen to secure Silesia from the south and north. In 1760 IR8 joined Prince Henry's corps, which joined up with the King on August 29th after Liegnitz, in which the grenadiers took part on the part of the field away from Loudon's attack. At Torgau on 3rd November 1760 IR8 was part of the second attack after the failure of the advance guard, and advanced to the Süptitz Heights where it held off all counterattacks but suffered huge casualties. Dorn and Engelmann say that the regiment lost 1000 out of 1300.

Christopher Duffy says that in 1784 Frederick said that the troops of IR8 looked "like a mob of ignorant peasants"!

 And this is the musketeer uniform in 1756:


Sunday, 4 April 2021

Flags of Regiments Rot (or Roth) and Blau Würzburg

I did these some time ago and then edited them somewhat last year in response to a discussion with Frederic Aubert on a Facebook wargaming site as my originals were not really up to date any more. I still feel that the heraldry is not quite right so will update them again if I should find something definitive about that. I offer them here as an interim posting to keep things ticking over while I finish off the next Prussian flags, those of IR8; as always, the text takes much longer than creating the flags and uniforms.

Rot Würzburg is famous for its defence of the walled churchyard at Leuthen against the Prussians. Both regiments were vastly superior to the majority of Reichsarmee regiments in the Seven Years War, although strictly they were not Reichsarmee but on the Austrian establishment. Long detailed accounts of their history in the war can be found on Kronoskaf and I shall not repeat or summarise those accounts here; I think my time can better be spent on completing the text for Prussian IR8!


 And these are the musketeer uniforms in the SYW:

Friday, 26 March 2021

Flags of French Regiment Vierzet

Another Walloon regiment, Vierzet was raised 25th March 1757 for service with the French army. It had two battalions and was recruited in the Bishopric of Liège by Colonel Charles Albert Baron Vierzet. In the 1759 État Militaire the regiment ranked 119th.

About the only detailed account I can find of this regiment is on Kronoskaf; it seems the records and archive of the regiment were lost as a result of a riot in 1769 in Bruges and after a later surprise attack on Namur, so little accurate information is available on its early history. A somewhat unreliable history was published in 1847 in German, as the regiment subsequently passed to the Austrian service in 1762, becoming Infantry Regiment 58.

Please note further details of both Horion and Vierzet are given in the account that Simon Modaff kindly posted in the comments to Regiment Horion below; the text he cites I have posted with that regiment.

The flags feature the column of Liège, as also shown on the flags of Horion which I previously posted. The flag details are taken from the French 1757 MS image.

To summarise the history as related on Kronoskaf, by August 1757 the regiment was in garrison in Givet and Charlemont in Hainault. By 1758 the regiment was with Broglie's corps in Hessen. On July 10th 1760 it was at the combat of Corbach, attached to the vanguard under Baron de Clausen. In October it was part of M. d'Aubigny's detachment. On July 16th 1761 it was at the battle of Vellinghausen, in Bouillon's Brigade in the second line of the centre of Soubise's army. On the 28th August, the regiment was roughly handled when it was attacked in Dorsten. Fighting took place in the streets and the town place before the Allies finally captured the town, along with Soubise's bakery and the 1st battalion of Vierzet, with its colonel. On October 16th the 2nd battalion of the regiment was at the battle of Clostercamp, deployed on the far right.

By March 1762 the regiment was part of the Prince de Condé's Army of the Lower Rhine. Returning to France in November, on the 25th it was disbanded but then in January 1763 sent to Brussels taken into the service of the Austrian Empire. Its commander the Baron de Vierzet became a major-general and the regiment's proprietor. The regiment was enlarged by further recruitment in Liège. According to Christopher Duffy, the Walloon regiments were some of the most dependable units in the Austrian army.

 And this is the uniform in 1757:


Sunday, 14 March 2021

New - Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Infantry Regiment 18 Prinz von Preussen

So, here we have the first of the new Leuthen flags and uniforms. I have already posted the flags of Infantry Regiments 1, 5, 6, 13, 19, 23 and 26, all Rossbach regiments which were also at Leuthen. (I still have IR15 from Rossbach to do; they were also at Leuthen.)

IR18 traced its origins back to 1698. From 1742 its chef was Frederick's much-loved, if somewhat inadequate, brother, Major General August Wilhelm, Prince of Prussia, until his disgrace in 1757 and death in 1758. From 1758 its chef was Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm, Crown Prince of Prussia, later King Friedrich Wilhelm II.


In 1756 IR18 was part of the King's army which captured the Saxon army in the Pirna campaign, was at Reichenbach on April 21st 1757 and was on the right wing at Prague on May 6th. In the first line under the Duke of Bevern it led the assault south of Kej on the Austrian centre, fighting over the causeway south of Hostawitz and by the Rokenitz Brook. In the subsequent siege of Prague it took the Ziska-Berg on May 9th, losing Colonel von Strantz in the process. After Kolin, the King severely criticised the retreat to Bautzen and blamed his brother Major General August Wilhelm, Prince of Prussia (chef of IR18 since 1742). August Wilhelm left the army and died at Oranienburg on June 12th 1758; the King had not forgiven him. Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm, Crown Prince of Prussia, later King Friedrich Wilhelm II, took over as chef of IR18. On November 22nd the regiment survived the defeat at Breslau but lost Lieutenant Colonel Christoph Wilhelm von Belling. One battalion was at Leuthen on December 5th (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st edition shows about 20% casualties) and the regiment besieged Breslau. In 1758 the regiment was at Zorndorf on August 25th (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st edition shows about 15% casualties in the two battalions). While reviewing them before the battle the King had said: "My friends! Stand firm, all will be well!". He awarded the regiment 4 Pour Le Merites, one to Lieutenant von der Hagen. At Hochkirch on October 14th IR18 suffered very heavy losses leading the counter-attack on the right wing (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st edition shows at least 40% casualties in the two battalions). It was with the King again in 1759; the King called it "my dear brother's regiment". It was lucky to avoid Kunersdorf. In 1760 it was at the siege of Dresden in July, saw no action at Liegnitz in August, but led the last decisive attack at Torgau on November 3rd in Zieten's Saldern Brigade. Five Pour Le Merite medals were awarded to the company commanders for that action. A hundred volunteers under Captain von der Hagen were employed to break through the entanglements of Burkersdorf on July 21st 1762 while the rest of the regiment was employed elsewhere on the battlefield. Its last action of the war was at Reichenbach on 16th August 1762 where it saw little action.

And this is the musketeer uniform in 1756:

Thursday, 18 February 2021

Flags of French Regiment Horion

Raised 25th March 1757 by the Comte de Horion. This was a Walloon regiment from Liège, now in Belgium. 2 battalions strong. Ranked 120th in the 1759 État Militaire. The regiment was disbanded in 1762.

The perron or column of Liège illustrated in the centre of the flags is depicted in various ways; I have chosen to show it as it appears on the flags of the Walloon regiment Vierzet in the French MS of 1757, as the closest we have to an authentic contemporary depiction.

There does not seem to be a readily available and comprehensive account of the regiment's history in the Seven Years War. Kronoskaf recounts its activity from 1757-1760 only. To sum up the Kronoskaf account, the regiment was in garrison in Philippeville by August 1757. By the beginning of August 1758 the regiment was part of the garrison of Cherbourg along with Clare, defending against British attacks on the French coasts. By May 1760 it was part of Broglie's army in Germany and on July 10th took part in the battle of Corbach where it was part of Broglie's vanguard. In October it went as part of a detachment sent towards the Lower Rhine. On October the 16th the regiment was involved in the battle of Clostercamp, on the far right of the first line where it was brigaded with La Couronne regiment. In support was a brigade consisting of Bouillon (see previous post for the uniform and flags of Bouillon) and Vierzet, another Liégoise regiment.

After that I do not know what happened to Horion, except that in 1762 the regiment passed into the service of the Austrians. If anyone has more information, please let me know!

And this is the uniform in 1757:

Simon Modaff kindly posted the following helpful and informative information in the comments:

SimonModaff said...Fastes militaries du Pays de Liege, Musee de l’Art Wallon, 24 oct. – 29 nov. 1970
p. 163 exh. 261. Liège regiments of Vierset and Horion, 1758.

On March 25, 1757, a royal order created two infantry regiments of Liège, at the time when, engaged in the Seven Years' War, he was forced to increase his infantry. Durand d'Aubigny, resident of France in Liége, was responsible for negotiating with Jean-Théodore de Baviére the authorization to recruit these regiments in the country of Liége, which was not without difficulty. The two colonels chosen were, on the one hand Charles-Albert de Billehé, Baron de Vierset, lieutenant-colonel in the Royal Bavarian Regiment, and on the other Charles-François-Joseph de Horion, chamberlain of the Prince-Bishop. The two corps were organized on the foot of German regiments in the service of France (in two battalions, each comprising 8 companies of 85 men), and first held garrison in Philippville and Givet. Very many members of the Liège nobility, including the future mayor Jean-Rémy de Chestret enrolled there. Sent to the coasts of the Atlantic, the two regiments fought the English incusions, Horion received the baptism of fire in Cherbourg in August 1758 and Vierset in Saint-Cast on September 1, transferred to the army of Marshal de Broglie in 1760, and forming a brigade with the Regiment of Bouillon, raised in part in the Principality, Horion and Vierset fought in Weswel, transferred to the army of the Bas-Rhin, they took their winter quarters in the country of Liège then joined the army de Soubise in March 1761. On August 30, attacked in Dorsten, the 1st Battalion of Vierset commanded by its colonel had to capitulate after heavy losses (176 killed and wounded). It was exchanged on September 12, Vierset and Horion were then separated, the first being in the army of the Rhine and the second in the region of Osnabruck. On November 20, 1762, Vierset was withdrawn from Germany by order of the King and licensed on January 10, 1763, to go into the pay of Austria. As for Horion, the "extraordinary dissipation in the finances" of which it was reached and the administrative carelessness of its officers caused its suppression on November 30, 1761. It remained until the end of 1762 and was reformed a month before Vierset.

Wednesday, 10 February 2021

Flags of French Regiment de Bouillon

On the 18th of January 1757 Louis XV accepted the offer of the Prince de Bouillon to raise a regiment in his principality and in the cantons neighbouring the Ardennes, to serve France as a foreign regiment and to remain within his house. The ordonnance for its creation was dated 1st February and specified a corps of 2 battalions of 680 men each.

Its colonel from 1st February 1757 to 21st October 1791 was Jacques-Léopold-Charles-Godefroy de La Tour d'Auvergne, Prince de Bouillon.

Ordonnance flags carried 1757-1791; the Colonel's flag was changed in 1772 to a more elaborate design with shield and coat of arms.

The regiment was ready to march the same year and was on the Rhine for the two campaigns of 1757 and 1758. Its usual quarters were at Dusseldorf. On the 1st of August 1759 the regiment fought valiantly at Minden [Kronoskaf says the regiment garrisoned Minden itself rather than fighting in the battle] where Captain the Marquis de Foudras was wounded. In 1760 its brigade, which also included the Liege regiments of Horion and Vierzet, was the second of the division of the Comte de Stainville. The first brigade was that of Auvergne. On the 10th of August Bouillon Regiment took part in the taking of Ziegenheim and on the 13th supported the valiant efforts of the regiment of Auvergne at the combat of Radern. The corps of generals Bulow and Fersen were there put to the most complete rout. After this affair the Stainville division approached the Rhine and passed under the orders of the Marquis de Castries in the camp of Meurs. Bouillon was made part of the reserve of this army and was posted between the camp and Rheinberg. On the 16th October there took place the battle of Clostercamps where the regiment did its duty well alongside the regiment of La Couronne. On the 30th August 1761 it fought again with the same corps at Roxel; it helped chase the enemy from that village and to push them "the sword in the kidneys" even under the cannon of Munster. In 1762 Bouillon served in the reserve of the Prince de Condé. Its grenadiers and chasseurs took part in the expedition to Osnabruck, which was the last of the war.

Bouillon, reduced to one battalion by 21st December, was put into garrison at Rocroi and Philippeville, from where it moved on to Montmédy in May 1763.

 Text from Susane Volume 7; my translation.

And this is the uniform in the Seven Years War:

P.S. I did plan to do French Regiment Mailly from Rossbach next; flags and uniform are drawn but the text is vastly longer and more complicated than Bouillon so it will have to wait a while...

Friday, 5 February 2021

What's next? An update, February 2021

This is just a quick update on my plans for the blog in the next few months.

After I finish the Prussian Rossbach infantry flags (there are just the flags of IR15 to do, which are fairly complex and unusual and so will take some time) I think I'll tackle the Prussian Leuthen infantry flags. I have a head start on them already because IRs 1, 5, 6, 13, 19 and 23 which I did for Rossbach were all also at Leuthen, as well as IR15. I already have 3 or 4 of the new Leuthen flags drawn but waiting for their text to be written. That's what takes the time! I do love the standardised format of most Prussian flags as it makes creating new ones so much easier...  :-) (The attached picture shows mock-Prussian IR15-like ImagiNations flags I created some years ago for a commission, with many others behind and to the right.)

I shall, naturally, continue doing French infantry flags. The next of those will be the flags of regiment Mailly, a large 4 battalion regiment I somehow missed from the Rossbach French project and which was in the thick of the action at that rather unfortunate battle (unfortunate for the French, anyway). I'm not yet sure if I'll tackle another batch of French flags from a particular battle or simply follow my recent capricious approach of doing any French infantry flags I happen to fancy doing.

And then there are other little or not so little projects I may try on the way. I've had requests for various flags and will consider the possibility of some of those. I may convert some almost authentic Russian SYW ImagiNations flags I did to make them authentic and post some of them; I'm not sure at the moment. (See attached rough snapshot of some of the flags as they are at present... They don't need a huge amount of conversion to make them authentic. The Russian Guards' flags are particularly nice, as I used a photograph of a surviving example in a Russian museum for all the complex details.) I'm doing a couple of small commissions at present as well, which all eat into the time and energy, as does Real Life (TM). So we shall see what is possible!

A comment from a chap on one of the Facebook SYW wargaming sites I frequent asking if I had a "tip jar" after he'd seen some of my SYW flags got me thinking about possible contributions to my reference book fund for flag books. All future flags I post on the blog will still be free as before - but I may make it possible via the blog for people to throw any loose and unwanted change my way, if they feel like contributing. I'm still thinking about that...

Friday, 29 January 2021

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 6 Grenadier Garde

First raised 1675 as the regiment of the Hereditary Prince Frederick. 2 battalions. 3 battalions in 1717 when it incorporated the so-called "Red Battalion" or "Long Fellows". In 1740 Frederick II reduced it to one battalion, retaining the cipher of his father Frederick William on the flags and the previous central wreath. IR15 now became the King's Guards and IR6 the Grenadier Garde.

The flags as they were in 1740:


And as they were after 1740:


The Grenadier Garde battalion first went into action in the Seven Years War at Rossbach on November 5th 1757. Its grenadier company had already fought in the battles of Lobositz and Prague. Its attack on the churchyard at Leuthen with the Guards Brigade is famous; losses were 36 dead and 155 wounded. In the defeat of Hochkirch on October 14th 1758 it was part of a counter-attack with the Guards (IR15) and infantry regiments 20 and 26 west of the village. In that battle it lost 335 men. In 1760 Major General Friedrich Christoph von Saldern became its chef; he was "an exemplary teacher of his officers, a great infantry tactician and inspector, a sensible friend to man and father to his soldiers". It was at Liegnitz on 15th August 1760 suffering light casualties. In the Battle of Torgau on November 3rd 1760, the Saldern Guard Brigade, at the head of the Zieten Corps, struck the enemy on the Süptitz Heights in the rear and flank at twilight via an unoccupied causeway between the sheep ponds, thus deciding the almost-lost battle. The attack cost the battalion eight officers and 333 men. On July 20th 1762 the battalion stormed Ohmsdorf Castle, which was the starting point for the attack on the Austrian defences between Burkersdorf and Leutmannsdorf; it was then employed to protect the artillery batteries established there. At Reichenbach a short time later the battalion saw action only after the battle was almost over.

This is a famous Röchling painting of IR 6 in action at Hohenfriedberg in 1745:

And Menzel's painting of a guardsman in 1740:

P.S. The flags as first posted had a "quality control problem", now fixed. So if you downloaded them quickly, please redownload. The member of staff who got it so terribly wrong has now been shot...

Friday, 22 January 2021

Flags of French Regiment Royal Lorraine

First raised 1744 then disbanded at the peace. Re-raised 20th March 1757 at the same time as Royal Barrois. The militia battalions of Mirecourt and Neufchateau were used to fill the ranks of Royal Lorraine. One battalion strong.

Ranked 104th in 1757.

Disbanded November 1762.

The details of the number and layout of the fleurs de lys are from Pierre Charrié, Drapeaux et Étendards du Roi.

With Soubise's Army of Saxony in 1757. Not at Rossbach. With the army of the Comte de Clermont in 1758. In August it was at the combat of Mehr where it fought bravely, being the last unit to leave the battlefield. It was then part of the Army of the Lower Rhine under Contades which recrossed the Rhine to follow the allied army under Ferdinand of Brunswick. In 1759 the regiment operated as part of the corps sent forward to support the French offensive in western Germany and acted as support to Broglie at Minden. [This is a summary of the information in Kronoskaf: as I do not have an independent account of the regiment in the SYW.]

And this is the uniform in the Seven Years War:

Saturday, 16 January 2021

Flags of French Regiment Royal Comtois

First raised 1674. 2 battalions strong. Ranked 59th in the SYW.

Flags carried 1695-1791.

Text from Susane Vol.7.

In April 1756 Royal Comtois embarked at Toulon for the expedition to Minorca. In the assault on Port Mahon on the 27th June, it was part of the left attack on the redoubts of Strugen, Argyle and De La Reine, and showed great courage. Captain de Sartre and sub-lieutenant of grenadiers Dufard were killed; Captain Beaumesnil and a lieutenant were wounded.

Returning to France after the conquest of the island, the regiment was sent in 1757 to join the army of Hanover and pursued the enemy to Klosterseven. At the beginning of 1758 it retreated to the Rhine and assisted at the battle of Crefeld, after which it returned to France. It spent the last campaigns of the Seven Years War on the coast of Flanders.

A detachment of volunteers [from the regiment], commanded by Captain the Count of Muret, continued to serve with the army of Germany. On the 19th December 1759 this detachment, only 160 men strong, was cantoned at Winter-Witten with 60 hussars and a cannon. There it was attacked by Baron Würmser, who had 500 cavalry, 400 infantry and 2 guns. On the appearance of the enemy the hussars, troops recruited exclusively from Germany, fled. The Count of Muret, attacked in flank and rear, fought strenuously for an hour and a half, and did not surrender until a third of his men had fallen.

By an ordonnance of 10th December 1762 Royal Comtois passed to the service of ports and colonies.

 And this is the uniform in 1756:


Flags of French Regiment Bourgogne

 First raised 1668. Ranked 43rd in 1756. 2 battalions.

This is a most attractive flag of an unusual design; the only other French regiment with a similar flag was Royal Comtois and I shall post that flag soon.

Flags carried 1668-1791.

From Susane Vol.6:

Bourgogne was sent in 1755 to Rochefort. It was the first regiment of the army which had acted as garrison of the port. [The first battalion served as garrison of various places in France during the Seven Years War.] The 2nd battalion was embarked on the 3rd of May with Baron de Dieskau to journey to Canada. There it participated to the end in the travails and miseries of the little army which fought for control of this beautiful colony with the British. [It was part of the garrison of Louisbourg until its siege and capture by the British at the end of July 1758.] At the end of 1759 several companies of the 1st battalion boarded frigates under the command of Captain Thurot for an expedition against the coasts of Great Britain. They found themselves on the 21st February 1760 at the taking of the town of Carrickfergus, in Ireland, and on the 28th at the bloody naval combat of the Isle of Man, where captains Brazide and Garcin were wounded [and the French struck their colours and were captured, which Susane fails to mention!].

At the time of the peace [1763] Bourgogne had one battalion at Rochefort and the other at the Ile d'Oleron, and it was employed for several years in the special service of ports and colonies.

And this is the European uniform of the regiment:

Wednesday, 13 January 2021

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 21 von Hülsen

 First raised 1713. Chef 1756-1767 was Major General Johann Dietrich von Hülsen, later Lieutenant General and Governor of Berlin


In 1756 IR 21 was at Lobositz on October 1st; in the final attack of the battle the regiment lost 12 officers and 265 men. 3 Pour-le-Merites were awarded to the regimental commander and the two battalion commanders. On October 12th the regimental chef Major General von Hülsen spoke to Frederick on behalf of his captains: "as I have found nothing to criticise in their ... service and the duty and loyalty they showed at every opportunity". The King therefore awarded 4 more Pour-le-Merites. The grenadiers served at Dresden and Aussig. After being at Prague the regiment was then with the King at Kolin on June 18th 1757. Its commander Major General von Hülsen proved a brave and talented leader. However, the regiment was destroyed by the final attack of Austrian and Saxon cavalry; it lost 11 dead and 16 captured officers, 500 dead other ranks, 200 wounded and 250 prisoners. Lieutenant General von Treskow, who commanded the left wing of the army, was captured along with the regimental colours, the regiment having been all but obliterated. At Rossbach only the first battalion was present, on the extreme left of the main Prussian infantry line. At Moys on September 7th, where Winterfeldt was killed,  the grenadiers lost 376 men. After serving on the left flank of the army at Leuthen, the regiment was sent to join Prince Henry's Saxon Corps in 1758.

Menzel drawing of von Hülsen riding a cannon into battle at Torgau

The grenadiers took the fortress of Schweidnitz in a night attack on April 16th 1758 and led successful counter attacks at the defeat of Hochkirch. At Greiffenberg on 26th March 1759 they were taken prisoner after a fierce fight. On August 12th the regiment lost 25 officers and 783 men at the disaster of Kunersdorf; the regiment was virtually wiped out yet again. The remnants of the battalion, a total of 15 officers and 582 men, were then taken prisoner on November 21st. In the winter of 1759-60, incorporating recovered invalids and new recruits, the regiment was reformed and in the spring of 1760 was serving with Prince Henry's corps which in the summer joined the march on Torgau with the King's army. It fought well in that battle and its chef was "hero of the hour". Christopher Duffy says in his Army of Frederick Great 2nd edition: "All of Hülsen's horses had been shot from under him and "since his age and wounds prevented him from going on foot, he set himself on a cannon and had himself dragged into the enemy fire"." This final assault drove the Austrians from their strongly held position. In both 1761 and 1762 the regiment was with the Saxon corps with Prince Henry and although at Freiberg did not see action there. Thus ended its war.

 [Information mostly from Dorn and Engelmann, Infantry of Frederick the Great.]

And here is the musketeer uniform of the regiment in the SYW: