Saturday, 17 April 2021

Prussian Garrison Regiment Flags - A Question...

A recent post on the Seven Years War wargaming page on Facebook which I frequent reminded me of the Prussian garrison regiment flags I posted a long time ago. I posted the flags of regiments 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9 (here: ) but not the rest, and I wondered if there was sufficient interest to justify finishing and posting the remainder. Please let me know in the comments.

I mentioned a while ago that, after someone asked me if I had a Tip Jar, I was thinking of adding a link to BuyMeACoffee, for those of you with loose change burning a hole in your pockets and who wanted to lob some my way. I have now added such a link near the top left of the blog (titled: Make A Small Contribution To My Book Fund!). I hasten to add that this is entirely voluntary on your part, and the flags and uniform templates will continue to be free. But if you would like to help my reference book fund I would be grateful; good books on historical flags tend not to be cheap and if you make a contribution, however small, you will have the satisfaction of knowing that you will have helped the production of yet more flags to be posted on the blog into the future. :-) Thank you.

Monday, 12 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Standards of Kürassier Regiment 1

First raised around 1665. Chef in 1756 was Colonel Wilhelm Dietrich von Buddenbrock, later a Field Marshal. His successor from the 2nd April 1757 was Major General Hans Kaspar von Krockow, who died on the 25th February 1759 of wounds received at Hochkirch. From 28th February 1759  the chef was Major General Gustav Albrecht von Schlabrendorff, who died in 1765.

[I've had these sitting around for some time but cannot promise I'll be rapidly adding all the Prussian cavalry standards to the blog. Eventually, perhaps. Working on the Prussian infantry flags plus those of the French and some others eats up plenty of time! Those of KR1 and the 1st Dragoons were of plain cloth sheets, not the damask of all the other regiments, so are much easier to depict. These are also of the older pattern carried in the previous reign; KRs 1, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11 and 12 all carried the older pattern, as did Dragoon regiments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7.]

In 1756 the regiment was part of Schwerin's Corps in Silesia and saw no serious action until Prague on May 6th 1757. There it was in the front line of the left flank cavalry attack that beat the Austrian cavalry threat with the help of Zieten's command. Losses were about 10-15% (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition). At Kolin on the 18th June (only 442 strong) the regiment was driven back to the Kaiserweg by Austrian cavalry with heavy losses. With the Duke of Bevern in Silesia from the end of August, it was involved in the defeat at Breslau on 22nd November. Joining the King at Parchwitz on 2nd December, it shared in the victory at Leuthen, with 10-15% casualties (Duffy again). In 1758 it was with the King's army, remaining in Silesia after the failed move on Olmütz in August. Although involved in the defeat at Hochkirch in the centre of the position casualties were minimal, apart from its chef von Krockow who was mortally wounded on the right wing. With Prince Henry's Saxon Corps in 1759 it was then sent to the Pomeranian Corps on June 24th and suffered heavy casualties at Kay (Paltzig) against the Russians; its regimental commander Colonel von Wartenburg was killed. Worse was to follow at the defeat of Kunersdorf three weeks later where the regiment lost 107 dead including 12 officers trying to help relieve the pressure on the infantry and then vainly trying to defeat the final great attack by the Austrian and Russian cavalry. At Torgau in 1760 the regiment led Holstein's cavalry attack on the Süptitz Heights, succeeding in driving back the Austrian cavalry despite repeated counter-attacks. In 1761 it served in Eastern Saxony and finally in 1762 fought in the victory of Freiberg under Prince Henry.

And this is the uniform as depicted by Menzel. The hat is of the later bicorne-type with plume whereas in the SYW the tricorne proper was worn:


Saturday, 10 April 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Infantry Regiment 8 von Amstell 1756; von Geist 1757-9; von Queiss 1759-1769

First raised 1679. Chef in 1756 was Major General Georg Friedrich von Amstell, who was killed in action at Prague on the 6th May 1757. His successor from the 12th December that year was Major General Karl Ferdinand, Baron von Hagen, called Geist, who died on the 19th February 1759 of wounds received at Hochkirch. From 25th February 1759 his replacement was Major General Julius Dietrich von Queiss, who lasted to 1769.

I have been working on an improved, more authentic and more detailed eagle; the one used here is after Bleckwenn's illustrations. In future I shall probably offer two versions of the flags, one with the new eagle but also one with the old, in order to maintain consistency for those who have already printed versions of my previous flags. Eventually I would like to update the older Prussian flags with the new improved eagle but will still offer the old version for those who might prefer it.

At the beginning of the Seven Years War the regiment was kept in reserve as an elite Pomeranian regiment but then sent to Lusatia in December 1756, serving under the Duke of Bevern at the battle of Reichenberg on April 21st 1757. Having joined Schwerin's army the regiment fought at Prague. After Kolin the grenadiers were captured after defending the town of Gabel but released the following spring. Having experienced defeat at the battle of Breslau on 2nd November, the regiment was at Leuthen on 2nd December with the King's army, suffering around 30% casualties, according to Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition. With the King's army again in 1758, the grenadiers suffered heavy casualties at Domstadtl on June 30th. At Zorndorf on 25th August they suffered 193 casualties. Both grenadiers and the rest of the regiment were with the King at Hochkirch on October 14th. When the large battery of 20 12-pounders and 6 field guns at the the south-east corner of the village was lost to the attacking Austrians, Major General von Geist wished to retake it. He was mortally wounded attempting to do so and died on February 19th 1759 from his wounds. The Austrians turned the Prussian guns against their former owners and defeated all attacks with blasts of grapeshot; the First Battalion of IR8 was able only to defend the western edge of the village and its gardens. Losses were around 50% of the two battalions (Duffy). The grenadiers fought on the left wing, facing the Austrians' second attack. They lost nearly 50% in casualties (Duffy).

In 1759 the regiment went with the King's army to the camp at Schmottseiffen to secure Silesia from the south and north. In 1760 IR8 joined Prince Henry's corps, which joined up with the King on August 29th after Liegnitz, in which the grenadiers took part on the part of the field away from Loudon's attack. At Torgau on 3rd November 1760 IR8 was part of the second attack after the failure of the advance guard, and advanced to the Süptitz Heights where it held off all counterattacks but suffered huge casualties. Dorn and Engelmann say that the regiment lost 1000 out of 1300.

Christopher Duffy says that in 1784 Frederick said that the troops of IR8 looked "like a mob of ignorant peasants"!

 And this is the musketeer uniform in 1756:


Sunday, 4 April 2021

Flags of Regiments Rot (or Roth) and Blau Würzburg

I did these some time ago and then edited them somewhat last year in response to a discussion with Frederic Aubert on a Facebook wargaming site as my originals were not really up to date any more. I still feel that the heraldry is not quite right so will update them again if I should find something definitive about that. I offer them here as an interim posting to keep things ticking over while I finish off the next Prussian flags, those of IR8; as always, the text takes much longer than creating the flags and uniforms.

Rot Würzburg is famous for its defence of the walled churchyard at Leuthen against the Prussians. Both regiments were vastly superior to the majority of Reichsarmee regiments in the Seven Years War, although strictly they were not Reichsarmee but on the Austrian establishment. Long detailed accounts of their history in the war can be found on Kronoskaf and I shall not repeat or summarise those accounts here; I think my time can better be spent on completing the text for Prussian IR8!


 And these are the musketeer uniforms in the SYW:

Friday, 26 March 2021

Flags of French Regiment Vierzet

Another Walloon regiment, Vierzet was raised 25th March 1757 for service with the French army. It had two battalions and was recruited in the Bishopric of Liège by Colonel Charles Albert Baron Vierzet. In the 1759 État Militaire the regiment ranked 119th.

About the only detailed account I can find of this regiment is on Kronoskaf; it seems the records and archive of the regiment were lost as a result of a riot in 1769 in Bruges and after a later surprise attack on Namur, so little accurate information is available on its early history. A somewhat unreliable history was published in 1847 in German, as the regiment subsequently passed to the Austrian service in 1762, becoming Infantry Regiment 58.

Please note further details of both Horion and Vierzet are given in the account that Simon Modaff kindly posted in the comments to Regiment Horion below; the text he cites I have posted with that regiment.

The flags feature the column of Liège, as also shown on the flags of Horion which I previously posted. The flag details are taken from the French 1757 MS image.

To summarise the history as related on Kronoskaf, by August 1757 the regiment was in garrison in Givet and Charlemont in Hainault. By 1758 the regiment was with Broglie's corps in Hessen. On July 10th 1760 it was at the combat of Corbach, attached to the vanguard under Baron de Clausen. In October it was part of M. d'Aubigny's detachment. On July 16th 1761 it was at the battle of Vellinghausen, in Bouillon's Brigade in the second line of the centre of Soubise's army. On the 28th August, the regiment was roughly handled when it was attacked in Dorsten. Fighting took place in the streets and the town place before the Allies finally captured the town, along with Soubise's bakery and the 1st battalion of Vierzet, with its colonel. On October 16th the 2nd battalion of the regiment was at the battle of Clostercamp, deployed on the far right.

By March 1762 the regiment was part of the Prince de Condé's Army of the Lower Rhine. Returning to France in November, on the 25th it was disbanded but then in January 1763 sent to Brussels taken into the service of the Austrian Empire. Its commander the Baron de Vierzet became a major-general and the regiment's proprietor. The regiment was enlarged by further recruitment in Liège. According to Christopher Duffy, the Walloon regiments were some of the most dependable units in the Austrian army.

 And this is the uniform in 1757:


Sunday, 14 March 2021

New - Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Infantry Regiment 18 Prinz von Preussen

So, here we have the first of the new Leuthen flags and uniforms. I have already posted the flags of Infantry Regiments 1, 5, 6, 13, 19, 23 and 26, all Rossbach regiments which were also at Leuthen. (I still have IR15 from Rossbach to do; they were also at Leuthen.)

IR18 traced its origins back to 1698. From 1742 its chef was Frederick's much-loved, if somewhat inadequate, brother, Major General August Wilhelm, Prince of Prussia, until his disgrace in 1757 and death in 1758. From 1758 its chef was Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm, Crown Prince of Prussia, later King Friedrich Wilhelm II.


In 1756 IR18 was part of the King's army which captured the Saxon army in the Pirna campaign, was at Reichenbach on April 21st 1757 and was on the right wing at Prague on May 6th. In the first line under the Duke of Bevern it led the assault south of Kej on the Austrian centre, fighting over the causeway south of Hostawitz and by the Rokenitz Brook. In the subsequent siege of Prague it took the Ziska-Berg on May 9th, losing Colonel von Strantz in the process. After Kolin, the King severely criticised the retreat to Bautzen and blamed his brother Major General August Wilhelm, Prince of Prussia (chef of IR18 since 1742). August Wilhelm left the army and died at Oranienburg on June 12th 1758; the King had not forgiven him. Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm, Crown Prince of Prussia, later King Friedrich Wilhelm II, took over as chef of IR18. On November 22nd the regiment survived the defeat at Breslau but lost Lieutenant Colonel Christoph Wilhelm von Belling. One battalion was at Leuthen on December 5th (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st edition shows about 20% casualties) and the regiment besieged Breslau. In 1758 the regiment was at Zorndorf on August 25th (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st edition shows about 15% casualties in the two battalions). While reviewing them before the battle the King had said: "My friends! Stand firm, all will be well!". He awarded the regiment 4 Pour Le Merites, one to Lieutenant von der Hagen. At Hochkirch on October 14th IR18 suffered very heavy losses leading the counter-attack on the right wing (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st edition shows at least 40% casualties in the two battalions). It was with the King again in 1759; the King called it "my dear brother's regiment". It was lucky to avoid Kunersdorf. In 1760 it was at the siege of Dresden in July, saw no action at Liegnitz in August, but led the last decisive attack at Torgau on November 3rd in Zieten's Saldern Brigade. Five Pour Le Merite medals were awarded to the company commanders for that action. A hundred volunteers under Captain von der Hagen were employed to break through the entanglements of Burkersdorf on July 21st 1762 while the rest of the regiment was employed elsewhere on the battlefield. Its last action of the war was at Reichenbach on 16th August 1762 where it saw little action.

And this is the musketeer uniform in 1756:

Thursday, 18 February 2021

Flags of French Regiment Horion

Raised 25th March 1757 by the Comte de Horion. This was a Walloon regiment from Liège, now in Belgium. 2 battalions strong. Ranked 120th in the 1759 État Militaire. The regiment was disbanded in 1762.

The perron or column of Liège illustrated in the centre of the flags is depicted in various ways; I have chosen to show it as it appears on the flags of the Walloon regiment Vierzet in the French MS of 1757, as the closest we have to an authentic contemporary depiction.

There does not seem to be a readily available and comprehensive account of the regiment's history in the Seven Years War. Kronoskaf recounts its activity from 1757-1760 only. To sum up the Kronoskaf account, the regiment was in garrison in Philippeville by August 1757. By the beginning of August 1758 the regiment was part of the garrison of Cherbourg along with Clare, defending against British attacks on the French coasts. By May 1760 it was part of Broglie's army in Germany and on July 10th took part in the battle of Corbach where it was part of Broglie's vanguard. In October it went as part of a detachment sent towards the Lower Rhine. On October the 16th the regiment was involved in the battle of Clostercamp, on the far right of the first line where it was brigaded with La Couronne regiment. In support was a brigade consisting of Bouillon (see previous post for the uniform and flags of Bouillon) and Vierzet, another Liégoise regiment.

After that I do not know what happened to Horion, except that in 1762 the regiment passed into the service of the Austrians. If anyone has more information, please let me know!

And this is the uniform in 1757:

Simon Modaff kindly posted the following helpful and informative information in the comments:

SimonModaff said...Fastes militaries du Pays de Liege, Musee de l’Art Wallon, 24 oct. – 29 nov. 1970
p. 163 exh. 261. Liège regiments of Vierset and Horion, 1758.

On March 25, 1757, a royal order created two infantry regiments of Liège, at the time when, engaged in the Seven Years' War, he was forced to increase his infantry. Durand d'Aubigny, resident of France in Liége, was responsible for negotiating with Jean-Théodore de Baviére the authorization to recruit these regiments in the country of Liége, which was not without difficulty. The two colonels chosen were, on the one hand Charles-Albert de Billehé, Baron de Vierset, lieutenant-colonel in the Royal Bavarian Regiment, and on the other Charles-François-Joseph de Horion, chamberlain of the Prince-Bishop. The two corps were organized on the foot of German regiments in the service of France (in two battalions, each comprising 8 companies of 85 men), and first held garrison in Philippville and Givet. Very many members of the Liège nobility, including the future mayor Jean-Rémy de Chestret enrolled there. Sent to the coasts of the Atlantic, the two regiments fought the English incusions, Horion received the baptism of fire in Cherbourg in August 1758 and Vierset in Saint-Cast on September 1, transferred to the army of Marshal de Broglie in 1760, and forming a brigade with the Regiment of Bouillon, raised in part in the Principality, Horion and Vierset fought in Weswel, transferred to the army of the Bas-Rhin, they took their winter quarters in the country of Liège then joined the army de Soubise in March 1761. On August 30, attacked in Dorsten, the 1st Battalion of Vierset commanded by its colonel had to capitulate after heavy losses (176 killed and wounded). It was exchanged on September 12, Vierset and Horion were then separated, the first being in the army of the Rhine and the second in the region of Osnabruck. On November 20, 1762, Vierset was withdrawn from Germany by order of the King and licensed on January 10, 1763, to go into the pay of Austria. As for Horion, the "extraordinary dissipation in the finances" of which it was reached and the administrative carelessness of its officers caused its suppression on November 30, 1761. It remained until the end of 1762 and was reformed a month before Vierset.

Wednesday, 10 February 2021

Flags of French Regiment de Bouillon

On the 18th of January 1757 Louis XV accepted the offer of the Prince de Bouillon to raise a regiment in his principality and in the cantons neighbouring the Ardennes, to serve France as a foreign regiment and to remain within his house. The ordonnance for its creation was dated 1st February and specified a corps of 2 battalions of 680 men each.

Its colonel from 1st February 1757 to 21st October 1791 was Jacques-Léopold-Charles-Godefroy de La Tour d'Auvergne, Prince de Bouillon.

Ordonnance flags carried 1757-1791; the Colonel's flag was changed in 1772 to a more elaborate design with shield and coat of arms.

The regiment was ready to march the same year and was on the Rhine for the two campaigns of 1757 and 1758. Its usual quarters were at Dusseldorf. On the 1st of August 1759 the regiment fought valiantly at Minden [Kronoskaf says the regiment garrisoned Minden itself rather than fighting in the battle] where Captain the Marquis de Foudras was wounded. In 1760 its brigade, which also included the Liege regiments of Horion and Vierzet, was the second of the division of the Comte de Stainville. The first brigade was that of Auvergne. On the 10th of August Bouillon Regiment took part in the taking of Ziegenheim and on the 13th supported the valiant efforts of the regiment of Auvergne at the combat of Radern. The corps of generals Bulow and Fersen were there put to the most complete rout. After this affair the Stainville division approached the Rhine and passed under the orders of the Marquis de Castries in the camp of Meurs. Bouillon was made part of the reserve of this army and was posted between the camp and Rheinberg. On the 16th October there took place the battle of Clostercamps where the regiment did its duty well alongside the regiment of La Couronne. On the 30th August 1761 it fought again with the same corps at Roxel; it helped chase the enemy from that village and to push them "the sword in the kidneys" even under the cannon of Munster. In 1762 Bouillon served in the reserve of the Prince de Condé. Its grenadiers and chasseurs took part in the expedition to Osnabruck, which was the last of the war.

Bouillon, reduced to one battalion by 21st December, was put into garrison at Rocroi and Philippeville, from where it moved on to Montmédy in May 1763.

 Text from Susane Volume 7; my translation.

And this is the uniform in the Seven Years War:

P.S. I did plan to do French Regiment Mailly from Rossbach next; flags and uniform are drawn but the text is vastly longer and more complicated than Bouillon so it will have to wait a while...

Friday, 5 February 2021

What's next? An update, February 2021

This is just a quick update on my plans for the blog in the next few months.

After I finish the Prussian Rossbach infantry flags (there are just the flags of IR15 to do, which are fairly complex and unusual and so will take some time) I think I'll tackle the Prussian Leuthen infantry flags. I have a head start on them already because IRs 1, 5, 6, 13, 19 and 23 which I did for Rossbach were all also at Leuthen, as well as IR15. I already have 3 or 4 of the new Leuthen flags drawn but waiting for their text to be written. That's what takes the time! I do love the standardised format of most Prussian flags as it makes creating new ones so much easier...  :-) (The attached picture shows mock-Prussian IR15-like ImagiNations flags I created some years ago for a commission, with many others behind and to the right.)

I shall, naturally, continue doing French infantry flags. The next of those will be the flags of regiment Mailly, a large 4 battalion regiment I somehow missed from the Rossbach French project and which was in the thick of the action at that rather unfortunate battle (unfortunate for the French, anyway). I'm not yet sure if I'll tackle another batch of French flags from a particular battle or simply follow my recent capricious approach of doing any French infantry flags I happen to fancy doing.

And then there are other little or not so little projects I may try on the way. I've had requests for various flags and will consider the possibility of some of those. I may convert some almost authentic Russian SYW ImagiNations flags I did to make them authentic and post some of them; I'm not sure at the moment. (See attached rough snapshot of some of the flags as they are at present... They don't need a huge amount of conversion to make them authentic. The Russian Guards' flags are particularly nice, as I used a photograph of a surviving example in a Russian museum for all the complex details.) I'm doing a couple of small commissions at present as well, which all eat into the time and energy, as does Real Life (TM). So we shall see what is possible!

A comment from a chap on one of the Facebook SYW wargaming sites I frequent asking if I had a "tip jar" after he'd seen some of my SYW flags got me thinking about possible contributions to my reference book fund for flag books. All future flags I post on the blog will still be free as before - but I may make it possible via the blog for people to throw any loose and unwanted change my way, if they feel like contributing. I'm still thinking about that...

Friday, 29 January 2021

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 6 Grenadier Garde

First raised 1675 as the regiment of the Hereditary Prince Frederick. 2 battalions. 3 battalions in 1717 when it incorporated the so-called "Red Battalion" or "Long Fellows". In 1740 Frederick II reduced it to one battalion, retaining the cipher of his father Frederick William on the flags and the previous central wreath. IR15 now became the King's Guards and IR6 the Grenadier Garde.

The flags as they were in 1740:


And as they were after 1740:


The Grenadier Garde battalion first went into action in the Seven Years War at Rossbach on November 5th 1757. Its grenadier company had already fought in the battles of Lobositz and Prague. Its attack on the churchyard at Leuthen with the Guards Brigade is famous; losses were 36 dead and 155 wounded. In the defeat of Hochkirch on October 14th 1758 it was part of a counter-attack with the Guards (IR15) and infantry regiments 20 and 26 west of the village. In that battle it lost 335 men. In 1760 Major General Friedrich Christoph von Saldern became its chef; he was "an exemplary teacher of his officers, a great infantry tactician and inspector, a sensible friend to man and father to his soldiers". It was at Liegnitz on 15th August 1760 suffering light casualties. In the Battle of Torgau on November 3rd 1760, the Saldern Guard Brigade, at the head of the Zieten Corps, struck the enemy on the Süptitz Heights in the rear and flank at twilight via an unoccupied causeway between the sheep ponds, thus deciding the almost-lost battle. The attack cost the battalion eight officers and 333 men. On July 20th 1762 the battalion stormed Ohmsdorf Castle, which was the starting point for the attack on the Austrian defences between Burkersdorf and Leutmannsdorf; it was then employed to protect the artillery batteries established there. At Reichenbach a short time later the battalion saw action only after the battle was almost over.

This is a famous Röchling painting of IR 6 in action at Hohenfriedberg in 1745:

And Menzel's painting of a guardsman in 1740:

P.S. The flags as first posted had a "quality control problem", now fixed. So if you downloaded them quickly, please redownload. The member of staff who got it so terribly wrong has now been shot...

Friday, 22 January 2021

Flags of French Regiment Royal Lorraine

First raised 1744 then disbanded at the peace. Re-raised 20th March 1757 at the same time as Royal Barrois. The militia battalions of Mirecourt and Neufchateau were used to fill the ranks of Royal Lorraine. One battalion strong.

Ranked 104th in 1757.

Disbanded November 1762.

The details of the number and layout of the fleurs de lys are from Pierre Charrié, Drapeaux et Étendards du Roi.

With Soubise's Army of Saxony in 1757. Not at Rossbach. With the army of the Comte de Clermont in 1758. In August it was at the combat of Mehr where it fought bravely, being the last unit to leave the battlefield. It was then part of the Army of the Lower Rhine under Contades which recrossed the Rhine to follow the allied army under Ferdinand of Brunswick. In 1759 the regiment operated as part of the corps sent forward to support the French offensive in western Germany and acted as support to Broglie at Minden. [This is a summary of the information in Kronoskaf: as I do not have an independent account of the regiment in the SYW.]

And this is the uniform in the Seven Years War:

Saturday, 16 January 2021

Flags of French Regiment Royal Comtois

First raised 1674. 2 battalions strong. Ranked 59th in the SYW.

Flags carried 1695-1791.

Text from Susane Vol.7.

In April 1756 Royal Comtois embarked at Toulon for the expedition to Minorca. In the assault on Port Mahon on the 27th June, it was part of the left attack on the redoubts of Strugen, Argyle and De La Reine, and showed great courage. Captain de Sartre and sub-lieutenant of grenadiers Dufard were killed; Captain Beaumesnil and a lieutenant were wounded.

Returning to France after the conquest of the island, the regiment was sent in 1757 to join the army of Hanover and pursued the enemy to Klosterseven. At the beginning of 1758 it retreated to the Rhine and assisted at the battle of Crefeld, after which it returned to France. It spent the last campaigns of the Seven Years War on the coast of Flanders.

A detachment of volunteers [from the regiment], commanded by Captain the Count of Muret, continued to serve with the army of Germany. On the 19th December 1759 this detachment, only 160 men strong, was cantoned at Winter-Witten with 60 hussars and a cannon. There it was attacked by Baron Würmser, who had 500 cavalry, 400 infantry and 2 guns. On the appearance of the enemy the hussars, troops recruited exclusively from Germany, fled. The Count of Muret, attacked in flank and rear, fought strenuously for an hour and a half, and did not surrender until a third of his men had fallen.

By an ordonnance of 10th December 1762 Royal Comtois passed to the service of ports and colonies.

 And this is the uniform in 1756:


Flags of French Regiment Bourgogne

 First raised 1668. Ranked 43rd in 1756. 2 battalions.

This is a most attractive flag of an unusual design; the only other French regiment with a similar flag was Royal Comtois and I shall post that flag soon.

Flags carried 1668-1791.

From Susane Vol.6:

Bourgogne was sent in 1755 to Rochefort. It was the first regiment of the army which had acted as garrison of the port. [The first battalion served as garrison of various places in France during the Seven Years War.] The 2nd battalion was embarked on the 3rd of May with Baron de Dieskau to journey to Canada. There it participated to the end in the travails and miseries of the little army which fought for control of this beautiful colony with the British. [It was part of the garrison of Louisbourg until its siege and capture by the British at the end of July 1758.] At the end of 1759 several companies of the 1st battalion boarded frigates under the command of Captain Thurot for an expedition against the coasts of Great Britain. They found themselves on the 21st February 1760 at the taking of the town of Carrickfergus, in Ireland, and on the 28th at the bloody naval combat of the Isle of Man, where captains Brazide and Garcin were wounded [and the French struck their colours and were captured, which Susane fails to mention!].

At the time of the peace [1763] Bourgogne had one battalion at Rochefort and the other at the Ile d'Oleron, and it was employed for several years in the special service of ports and colonies.

And this is the European uniform of the regiment:

Wednesday, 13 January 2021

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 21 von Hülsen

 First raised 1713. Chef 1756-1767 was Major General Johann Dietrich von Hülsen, later Lieutenant General and Governor of Berlin


In 1756 IR 21 was at Lobositz on October 1st; in the final attack of the battle the regiment lost 12 officers and 265 men. 3 Pour-le-Merites were awarded to the regimental commander and the two battalion commanders. On October 12th the regimental chef Major General von Hülsen spoke to Frederick on behalf of his captains: "as I have found nothing to criticise in their ... service and the duty and loyalty they showed at every opportunity". The King therefore awarded 4 more Pour-le-Merites. The grenadiers served at Dresden and Aussig. After being at Prague the regiment was then with the King at Kolin on June 18th 1757. Its commander Major General von Hülsen proved a brave and talented leader. However, the regiment was destroyed by the final attack of Austrian and Saxon cavalry; it lost 11 dead and 16 captured officers, 500 dead other ranks, 200 wounded and 250 prisoners. Lieutenant General von Treskow, who commanded the left wing of the army, was captured along with the regimental colours, the regiment having been all but obliterated. At Rossbach only the first battalion was present, on the extreme left of the main Prussian infantry line. At Moys on September 7th, where Winterfeldt was killed,  the grenadiers lost 376 men. After serving on the left flank of the army at Leuthen, the regiment was sent to join Prince Henry's Saxon Corps in 1758.

Menzel drawing of von Hülsen riding a cannon into battle at Torgau

The grenadiers took the fortress of Schweidnitz in a night attack on April 16th 1758 and led successful counter attacks at the defeat of Hochkirch. At Greiffenberg on 26th March 1759 they were taken prisoner after a fierce fight. On August 12th the regiment lost 25 officers and 783 men at the disaster of Kunersdorf; the regiment was virtually wiped out yet again. The remnants of the battalion, a total of 15 officers and 582 men, were then taken prisoner on November 21st. In the winter of 1759-60, incorporating recovered invalids and new recruits, the regiment was reformed and in the spring of 1760 was serving with Prince Henry's corps which in the summer joined the march on Torgau with the King's army. It fought well in that battle and its chef was "hero of the hour". Christopher Duffy says in his Army of Frederick Great 2nd edition: "All of Hülsen's horses had been shot from under him and "since his age and wounds prevented him from going on foot, he set himself on a cannon and had himself dragged into the enemy fire"." This final assault drove the Austrians from their strongly held position. In both 1761 and 1762 the regiment was with the Saxon corps with Prince Henry and although at Freiberg did not see action there. Thus ended its war.

 [Information mostly from Dorn and Engelmann, Infantry of Frederick the Great.]

And here is the musketeer uniform of the regiment in the SYW:

Sunday, 3 January 2021

Flags of French Regiment Saintonge

 First raised under Louis XIV in 1684. 1 battalion.

Ranked 77th in 1756.

Flags carried 1684-1791.

The pattern of the colours seems a bit variable depending on the source; I have chosen to use the 1721 French manuscript volume as I feel it is probably more authoritative than many.

Saintonge was called, in 1755, to the camp of Aimeries sur Sambre. It was stationed at Brest at the beginning of the Seven Years War and was in Brittany for the duration of the war. In 1759, when France made its great effort to attack Britain on its home territory, it was embarked in the fleet of M de Conflans, who did not live up to the promise of such a mission. After a deplorable combat [presumably Quiberon Bay?] the expedition returned to Brest.

The ordonnance of 10th December 1762 put Saintonge in the service of ports and colonies. It had been sent the preceding year to Guiana and had lost several companies in an appalling shipwreck. Lieutenant Vicomte de Berlaymont had survived four days with some of his men in the open sea on the wreckage of a ship. The regiment left Guiana in 1766 for Guadeloupe and returned to Brest in France on the 11th of April 1768.

And this is the uniform in 1756:

[The text is largely from Susane again; I'm sure you will note the somewhat pro-French bias! :-) This is yet another French regiment which saw far more activity in the War of the Spanish Succession than in the SYW; it fought at Blenheim and Malplaquet, for instance.]

Flags of French Regiment Limousin

 First raised 1622 by Louis XIII. 2 battalions. Took the name of the province of Limosin (Limousin) in 1684.

Ranked 25th in 1756.

Flags carried 1684-1791.

In 1756 Limousin was in the camp of Cherbourg. The regiment served on the coasts of Normandy during the four following campaigns and then in the campaigns in Germany in 1761 and 1762. It was distinguished on the 16th July 1761, along with Piemont Infantry, in the combat of Schedingen, whose happy result was annulled by the check of Villingshausen. At the peace of 1763 Limousin went into garrison in Douai.

And this is the uniform in 1756:

(Again, this is largely from a somewhat pro-French piece from Susane so YMMV! As with Angoumois and Saintonge, the regiment seems to have been far more actively engaged in the late 17th century and then the War of the Spanish Succession than in the SYW. It was initially very busy in the Italian Theatre, including the battle of Turin, and afterwards in Flanders including the battle of  Malplaquet.)

Wednesday, 30 December 2020

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 24 Schwerin (then von der Golz 11th May 1757 to 1761; vacant 1761-3)

Season's Greetings and a Happy New Year to all viewing this blog!

Here at last are the next Prussian flags, of IR24.

The regiment was created 1715 from two former garrison battalions.

In 1756 IR 24 took part with the Royal army in the Pirna campaign. At the battle of Prague on 6th May 1757 it led the left wing in the first attack on  the Homole-Berg under Winterfeldt, who was soon wounded and put out of action. Struggling forward under heavy musket and canister fire the regiment was driven back in disorder. The 73 year old General Schwerin, who was its chef, tore a flag from the hands of Captain von Rohr and tried to lead the regiment forward again. In his Army of Frederick the Great 2nd Edition Christopher Duffy describes the scene thus:

"Riding forward he seized a green colour from the hand of a Junker of his second battalion and called out to his men "Heran mein Kinder!". He had scarcely covered twelve paces before he was deluged in canister. One ball took him behind the ear, one in the heart and three in the stomach. His dying hand let the colour fall to the right of the horse and he himself toppled over to the left. His horrified regiment took to its heels."


The image from Knötel above depicts Schwerin about to fall from his horse after being hit and clutching a Leibfahne of the regiment. The second image below is a depiction of his death by J C Frisch with the Leibfahne flag draped beside him. As Christopher Duffy's account above shows, it was a Kompaniefahne of the 2nd battalion that he actually seized.


The regiment lost 13 officers and 522 rank and file. After the breakthrough the regiment was led forward with the rest of Schwerin's wing to besiege Prague.

The regiment fought at Rossbach and the grenadiers at Leuthen. In 1758 the regiment was with Prince Heinrich's corps, securing the south-western flank. He took it with him into Franconia in 1759 but it was then sent by Frederick to join Hülsen's Pomeranian Corps, with whom it lost 37 officers and 933 men in the defeat at Kay against the Russians; its losses were one-sixth of total Prussian losses. It then had the pleasure of fighting against Russians three weeks later at Kunersdorf, in the vicious fight for the Kuh-grund.

In July 1760 it took part in Frederick's abortive siege of Dresden and then, after an exhausting march, in the Prussian victory of Liegnitz, where the Russians and Austrians were prevented from joining forces, followed by the battle of Hochgiersdorf on September 17th. The grenadiers fought to the last man with Fouqué at Landeshut on June 23rd. At Torgau on November 3rd the regiment took part in the second attack on the Süptitz heights but was halted by enemy reserves, losing 10 officers and 699 men.

In 1761 the regiment was on the Mulde in Saxony, watching the Austrians and the Imperial Army. On July 20th the grenadiers and the Guards stormed Ohmsdorf Castle as part of the preparations for taking the Burkersdorf fortifications. Finally, at Freiberg on October 29th as part of Colonel von Diringshofen's Brigade, the regiment was involved in the capture of the heights of St Michael north-west of Brand.

 Christopher Duffy's verdict on the regiment is that it was "famous for its quantity of beer-swilling Mecklenburgers. Badly knocked about at Prague, Kay and Torgau but remained one of the best regiments in the [Prussian] army".

And here is a musketeer of IR 24 by Menzel (but shown with the later more bicorn-like hat, not the SYW-style tricorne):


Tuesday, 15 December 2020

Flags of French Regiment Angoumois

As the lengthy texts of the Prussian flags are still taking time to complete here is another French set to keep things ticking over - and with another mercifully short text to accompany it. ;-) (As I know I have said ad nauseam, I do very much like the French flags and so they have become something of a speciality of mine - and this is also a somewhat unusual design.)

Angoumois first raised 1684. One battalion strong in the Seven Years War. Ranked 75th.

These flags were carried from 1684-1791.

The regiment was very active in the War of the Spanish and the War of the Austrian Succession (and the flags carried were identical to these) but had a rather quieter Seven Years War.

At the beginning of the SYW Angoumois was sent to America. Throughout the war it was split between Louisiana and St Domingo. By an ordinance of 10th December 1762 the regiment was attached to the service of ports and colonies and spent the next four years in Louisiana. It returned to France in 1766.

 And this is the uniform during the SYW:


Tuesday, 1 December 2020

Flags of French Regiment Royal Des Vaisseaux

As it has been taking so long to write up the backlog of Prussian flags, here is another French flag with a mercifully short write up.

The first set are as depicted on the 1757 manuscript illustration.

The second set are as described in the French 18th century regulations and by Pierre Charrié:

In 1721 the flags were depicted as without the ship and with a far greater number of gold fleurs de lys. I have taken the design of the ship from the 1757 manuscript illustration; in the regulations throughout the 1740s and 1750s the ship is described as gold, although almost all modern illustrations use a coloured version, as described by Pierre Charrié.

Royal Des Vaisseaux was first raised for sea service in 1638. It had 2 battalions in the Seven Years War.

The regiment was very active in the War of the Spanish Succession and the War of the Austrian Succession. Its Seven Years War was rather quieter.

In 1756 it was encamped at Granville. Fifty men under the command of the chevalier d'Eyrauges on the Iles Chaussey were attacked on the 19th July by a British squadron. For defence d'Eyrauges and his men had only an uncompleted fort and a single cannon. However, the defence was maintained so convincingly that the British were persuaded to give them the honours of war and conveyed the detachment to the mainland. The regiment spent the winter at Coutances and Bayeux and then in 1757 moved to the coast of Saintonge (on the Atlantic coast). It was in Brittany in 1758 and in that year at the battle of Saint-Cast on the 11th September where Captain La Canorgue was killed (see for the battle: and The battle was disastrous for the British and was the last British attack on mainland France in the war. As British MP Henry Fox said specifically of the raid on Rochefort in September 1757 but in general of the British policy of raiding the French coasts, it was like "breaking windows with guineas", that is to say, much effort and expense (of money and lives) for very little gain. (A guinea was a coin in the old British Imperial currency worth 21 shillings or one pound one shilling. I remember in the pre-decimal 1960s that expensive academic books were often priced at 63 shillings or 3 guineas.)

Royal-Vaisseaux occupied in succession the towns of Dinan, Niort, La Rochelle and Bayonne, all on the western coast of France. In 1762 the regiment was part of an auxiliary corps sent to Spain to fight against the Portuguese. Returning to France at the beginning of the following year, it occupied first Montlouis and Villefranche and then moved on to Toulouse in May 1763.

(Much of the text above is taken from Susane Volume 5, with additional text by me.)

And this is the illustration of the uniform (and flags) from the 1757 manuscript:

Thursday, 29 October 2020

Minden French Flags Project - Regiment Dauphin

 As I have not posted for over two weeks here is one more interim offering; another of the stray Minden French flags, which is one of my favourites. I do have a number of Prussian flags waiting in the queue but having to find time to write accompanying regimental histories to go with the flags does inevitably slow me down! Once again I also offer my translation of Susane's Francophile history of the regiment in the Seven Years War.


Dauphin was first raised in 1667 by Louis XIV as his son the Dauphin's own regiment. At the beginning of the Seven Years War it had two battalions.

Thus is my translation of the text from Susane volume 4:

In 1756, it was part of the La Hougue camp, and was in Toul in March 1757 when it received orders to join the army of the Marshal d'Estrées, then encamped under Wesel. It entered the landgraviate of Hesse and, after a short stay in Cassel, it rejoined this army, which had just invaded Hanover after the victory of Hastenbeck. It took part in all the actions of that expedition, and on the 25th of December found itself involved in the forcing of the line of the river Aller. At the beginning of 1758 it was in the rearguard of Marshal de Broglie's army during his retreat towards the Rhine. It spent this year in Hanau and had its winter quarters in Friedberg. In 1759 it was at the siege of Munster, and fought vigorously at the Battle of Bergen, where it remained from ten in the morning until night under formidable artillery fire. That day it had more then 200 men put out of action, and among the dead were the captains Chaponnay, de Gray, Montullé and Connezac, and three lieutenants. Dauphin again suffered greatly from artillery fire at the Battle of Minden, August 1st: there 150 men were killed or wounded. Captain de Panis and Lieutenant de Longeville were among the killed.

In 1760 it found itself at the affair of Corbach but took no part in it, having arrived too late to enter the line of battle. At the end of July, it helped to force Prince Ferdinand out of his position of Sachsenhausen; it also fought at Warburg, and after taking part in all the movements that marked the end of that punishing campaign, it wintered at Fulde. In the spring of 1761, the regiment took up its post at Hiersfeld. Sergeant Sans-Souci, in charge of fifteen men guarding a fodder depot, defended himself for a long time against a numerous body of enemy light troops; he managed to retreat but during the action he unfortunately suffered a mortal wound. The battles of Villingshausen were the only important events of this campaign. The regiments of the King and the Dauphin took the honours. Hurried together to help the Deux-Ponts brigade, which had seized the village of Villingshausen but was struggling to maintain the position, they fought fiercely throughout the day against the whole corps of Lord Granby and did not give in until they saw they were alone on the battlefield. On this day, almost all the grenadiers and chasseurs of Dauphin were killed, wounded or taken prisoner. The captain La Clos perished there. The regiment left the army in the month of October and was sent to Dunkirk to recover from its losses. It reappeared in 1762 in Germany and was part of the reserve under the orders of the Prince of Condé. It found itself at the bombardment of Ham, and its companies of grenadiers and chasseurs were part of an expedition to Osnabrück, which was the last operation of the war in this theatre. Dauphin returned to Dunkirk; and it was there that it incorporated, on February 15, 1763, the former regiment of Guyenne, a battalion of which had performed so well in the war in Canada.

And here is the uniform plus flags from the 1757 MS:

Saturday, 10 October 2020

Minden French Flags Project - Regiment Navarre

This is one of my favourite French infantry flags of the 18th century. As Kronoskaf have only a partial history of the regiment in the Seven Years War, I have translated and present almost the whole of Susane's account in Volume 3 of the Histoire De L'Ancienne Infanterie Française as it includes some useful anecdotes and mention of casualties in various actions. Some of the account may need to be taken with a pinch of salt as it is clearly very pro-French! I have checked some of the place names mentioned in the text with Kronoskaf accounts but a few are still obscure - those I have marked with [sic?].

I have also produced two versions of the flags. Normally I give a 300 dpi version but here, as an experiment, I have also submitted a 600 dpi version as it seems to me that the detail is rather clearer. At the sizes at which these flags are likely to be printed and used by wargamers it may not matter but I would be interested to hear opinions about this. The first flags are the 300 and the second the 600.

And here is the second 600 dpi version:

Regimental origins: Descended from a Protestant unit raised in 1558, Navarre was one of the oldest regiments in the French army. It was a four battalion regiment.

Regimental history from Susane Vol.3 (my translation): In the spring of 1756 it was encamped near St Malo as part of a corps commanded by the Duc d'Aiguillon sent to Brittany to prevent a threatened attack by the British. Twenty four volunteers of the regiment under lieutenant of grenadiers St Étienne were in a boat which was approached by a British cutter, which had for some time annoyed local fishermen. Once the two boats were alongside each other the Navarre volunteers swarmed onto the cutter and captured it.

Having spent the winter at Morlaix and Saint Brieuc the regiment joined the army of Marshal d'Estrées in 1757. At the battle of Hastenbeck on the 26th July the Navarre brigade, under the orders of Chevert, was given the task of turning the enemy's left flank. The grenadiers especially distinguished themselves. Colonel Comte du Châtelet-Lomond (later to be the last colonel of the Gardes Francaises) was wounded at the beginning of the action with a gunshot wound to the lower abdomen. Captains d'Ablancourt and La Vie were killed, as was Lieutenant de Forteuil. Captains Dortez, Lefrus, Bortier, Cassabé, de Bonce, Coquabanne and six other officers were wounded. The regiment lost, in addition, eighty soldiers, almost all grenadiers. After the campaign the regiment took up winter quarters at Einbeck. After the allies violated the convention of Kloster-Zeven in December the regiment moved to the lower Weser but then returned to Einbeck.

In 1758 the army moved back to the Rhine and Navarre was stationed at Meurs. On the 23rd June at the battle of Krefeld it had little to do but did lose lieutenant La Jeannie. It was distinguished several days later at the "affair of Luynen" and in September the grenadiers fought valiantly at the surprise attack on the camp of the Prince of Holstein at Bork. Captains Saint Privé and d'Auboeuf were killed. Winter quarters were in Cologne.

On 1st August 1759 during the battle of Minden the regiment made an abortive attack on the village of Hille after which it had to make a very punishing retreat. But the grenadiers, under the command of Monsieur de Saint Victor, overcame all obstacles and allowed the regiment to rejoin the army without severe losses. In these diverse actions only two officers were wounded, Captains Morival and Desmarens. A sergeant named Lebrun saved the staff records and for his bravery was made an officer. Winter quarters were at Aschaffenburg.

In 1760 the regiment joined the army at Grumberg and provided detachments for the sieges of Marburg and Dillenburg. At the battle of Korbach the regiment was ordered by Marshal de Broglie to attack the heights on the left of the position held by the Hereditary Prince of Hesse and defended by 16 guns. Approach was made under the cover of woods but the attack was repelled by blasts of grape shot. Then the grenadiers and chasseurs, combined under the command of Monsieur de Saint Victor, charged again with great vivacity and, giving the gunners no time to reload their guns, forced them to flee. Sixteen year old cadet Monsieur de Kergru was the first into the position and killed with his bayonet a gunner who was about to fire his gun.

On the 31st of August Navarre fought at Warburg. The volunteers distinguished themselves on several occasions under the leadership of Monsieur de Brécourt and de Sion; the latter was killed. At the end of the campaign the regiment contributed 200 men for the garrison of Gottingen and went into winter quarters at Kassel. The reunited grenadiers and chasseurs were stationed on the Weser. On the 22nd December they took Heiligenstadt and rendered the place indefensible.

In January 1761 lucky coups de main made them masters of Duderstadt and Stattworbes [Stadtberg?]. The day after the taking of the latter town the enemy, heavily reinforced, counter attacked. Two companies of chasseurs attacked them with the bayonet and drove them back. One of these companies lost ten men. However this detachment, too weak to hold all the captured places, was obliged to evacuate them and rallied the regiment at Kassel. Kassel was invested on the 15th February by the Count of Lippe at the head of an army of 20,000 men. During the night of the 6th to 7th of March a sortie was made. The 1st and 3rd battalions of Navarre were at the head of the left column of attack, which chased the enemy from two parallels and seized two batteries, one of howitzers and one of cannon. The howitzers were taken away; the cannons were spiked, their carriages broken, the batteries razed and the trenches filled in. Lieutenant Dassat with the vanguard reached even to the artillery depot and damaged it. The vanguard lost many people and above all many excellent NCOs. Captain de Soulanges and lieutenant of chasseurs Saint Loûet were killed in this sortie. On the 22nd a new sortie was made by the garrison; it cost the life of captain of grenadiers de Vertamont. In defence of the Warburg redoubt the regiment also lost Monsieur de La Touche. The enemy was obliged to raise the siege of Kassel and was harrassed in its retreat by the energetic garrison.

In July Navarre joined the army of Marshal de Broglie. It took no part in the battle of Vellinghausen but on the 3rd September helped in the taking of the castle of Sabbaborg [sic?]. After being involved in many expeditions of little significance the regiment took up winter quarters at Rothenburg and Homburg.

Navarre took part in the campaign of 1762 under Marshals d'Estrées and de Soubise. On the day of the action at Grebenstein, 4th June, Navarre was stationed at Immenhausen to protect the line of retreat. Captain Martincourt was wounded. Some time later, Navarre was ordered to conduct a convoy to Ziegenheim. It was necessary to go nine leagues in the rear of the enemy. The main object of the mission was a success but on the return journey it was attacked and only with skilful manoeuvres was it possible to escape a whole army bent on its destruction. After the capture of the castle of Amöneburg the regiment was then sent to the source of the Lohn [sic?] where it ended the campaign and the war. Lieutenant de Morlaincourt was the only officer of Navarre killed in 1762.

And this is the uniform plate from the 1757 MS:

Thursday, 10 September 2020

Portuguese Infantry Flags of the 18th Century - Batch 5

And here are the last 18th century Portuguese flags which I have created. These flags are shown on the Tavora execution painting of 1759 and are arguably the most authentically SYW of all these flags. Sadly, they are also, to my mind, rather bland and ugly! The white and green flag is carried by troops in white coats lined white with red lapels and cuffs, white waistcoat and breeches, brown gaiters. The yellow and green flag is carried by troops with blue coats lined blue with red lapels and cuffs, white waistcoat, blue breeches and brown gaiters. The officers, including the ensigns carrying the flags, have gold metal gorgets.

Next time I'll be back to posting French or Prussian flags.

Wednesday, 9 September 2020

Portuguese Infantry Flags of the 18th Century - Batch 4

Here is batch 4 of the Portuguese flags; first the typical SYW flag as recreated by Kronoskaf in the Braganza colours of green and white with the coat of arms in the centre:

The second flag is a Portuguese cavalry standard and is my interpretation of one I spotted being carried by a blue-coated cavalry regiment at the far left of the Tavora execution painting. Part of it is obscured by smoke and that is where I have had to assume the crown on the top of the cartouche. The colour of the outer part of the Braganza coat of arms also appears on the painting to be yellow rather than red, which does not make sense as I have never seen any version of the coat of arms with anything other than a red surround. Kronoskaf suggests that standards probably carried the cipher or coat of arms of their colonel; this one clearly did not, at least on the visible side of the standard. So, despite all the unanswered questions this depiction raises, this is my version of a Portuguese SYW cavalry standard.