Wednesday, 1 December 2021

Flags of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

The top flag is taken from the contemporary source showing Austrian flags as carried in the 1740s. The bottom two are hypothetical but quite possible Leibfahnen. Many Leibfahnen carried in the War of the Spanish Succession simply had the same pattern as the Ordinair-fahnen but with the main background colour of the flag as white. However, some also carried a small image of the Virgin and Child in a cartouche in the centre, as I have shown here in the final flag.


 


Sunday, 28 November 2021

Rossbach French Flags Project - Flags of French German Regiment La Marck

First raised 1680. Ranked 66th in the Seven Years War. 2 battalions.


 This pattern of flags was carried from 1697-1791.

Text from Susane Volume 7 translated by me:

In 1756 La Marck was part of the auxiliary corps promised by Louis XV to the Empress [Maria Theresa] but France having had to take part on its own account in the Seven Years War, the regiment was called to the army of Marshal d'Estrées and was present at the battle of Hastenbeck. The volunteers, commanded by Captain de Nézot, found themselves attacking the rearguard of the enemy at Bielefeld and suffered greatly from the fire of the enemy artillery. The regiment then followed Marshal de Richelieu who came to replace the Marshal d'Estrées in Hanover. After the Convention of Closterseven the regiment was at the camp of Halberstadt which it left on the 7th October, to go to reinforce the army of the Prince de Soubise. It was crushed on the 5th November at Rossbach [the next part of the sentence does not seem to make much sense so I have omitted it]. Captains Mantz l'ainé and Limar, and lieutenants Hiem, Brancion, Druhot, Suty and Beurdhal lost their lives; captains d'Ayrolles, Trichard, Desbarreaux, Lescalier, Housseau, Grandchamp, d'Eblingheim, Mantz cadet, Desfossé-Solis, Dufort and Lyautey were wounded, as were the three aide-majors Carlier, Maës and Scheid, and seven lieutenants amongst whom were Monsieurs Montel and Baklau.

The remnants of the regiment retreated to the Rhine and when Prince Ferdinand had crossed the river at the beginning of 1758, they were ordered to throw themselves into Dusseldorf. La Marck found itself that year at the battle of Krefeld and the combat of Meer, where it took from the enemy a cannon which replaced the one it had lost at Rossbach.

La Marck does not seem to have been actively employed in 1759. On the 18th January 1760 it incorporated the 2nd battalion of the regiment of Lowendhal, which raised its strength to three battalions. On the 10th of July it was distinguished at the battle of Corbach and, at the end of the same month, it made a vigorous contribution to the attack on Cassel and on the camp of Sachsenhausen, which Prince Ferdinand was obliged to abandon. The same year Captain de Nézot, who had continued to distinguish himself at the head of a company of volunteer chasseurs, played a brilliant part in the taking of Minden and received the cross of Saint-Louis at the age of 23 years. During the winter La Marck took part in the attack on the lower town of Statsberg and in 1761 the battle of Wilhemstadt and all those actions which took place around Cassel. A regulation of 21st December 1762 reduced the regiment to two battalions.

After the end of hostilities. La Marck was sent into garrison at Thionville.

 And this was the uniform in  1756:

 



Saturday, 20 November 2021

The flags of the French Volontaires de Hainaut, formerly those of the Arquebusiers de Grassin

I return briefly to my beloved French flags. Kronoskaf and the website Nec Pluribus Impar say that the Volontaires de Hainaut carried the flags of the Arquebusiers de Grassin, which I cannot find confirmed anywhere else, but as the thought pleases me I shall go along with it, as it means the flags can be used both in the WAS and SYW.


The Arquebusiers de Grassin were first raised January 1744. At first they consisted of 1300 men in total, including 900 fusiliers in nine companies, 100 grenadiers in two companies and 300 cavalry in six companies. An additional 200 cavalry were raised in 1745 but in 1748 they were progressively reduced to a total of only 340 men by December that year. In August 1749 they were incorporated into the Volontaires de Flandres.

Their somewhat exotic uniform is well known.

They saw much action in the War of Austrian Succession. At Fontenoy in May 1745 they were thrown into the Wood of Bary. At the battle of Rocoux along with the Fusiliers de la Morlière (with whom they often fought) they spearheaded the attack on the village of Hans, contributing to the withdrawal of the enemy left wing followed by the retreat of much of the rest of the enemy army. They were opposed by Pandours and Croats during much of the action. At the end of the action they attacked the Dutch artillery which withdrew, although the Grassins captured 22 guns and more than 60 artillery carts with teams. They also attacked and attempted to destroy bridges over the Meuse which the enemy was using in its retreat. At the battle of Lauffeld they were similarly employed on the right of the army but overthrown by the British cavalry. They were also at the siege of Huy in August 1746.

The Volontaires de Hainaut were raised in April 1757 by splitting the Volontaires de Flandres in two. The unit consisted of six companies of 70 men each, including 30 dragoons. In February 1758 it consisted of eight companies of 75 men each - 40 fusiliers and 35 dragoons. The unit became the Legion de Hainaut in December 1762, the Legion de Lorraine in 1768 and was disbanded in 1776.

The Osprey on the light troops of Louis XV has a useful summary of the unit's activities in the Seven Years War (and Kronoskaf has a more detailed account). The Volontaires de Hainaut saw much action in the Seven Years War. They first saw action at the battle of Hastenbeck in 1757, then took part in the surprise attack on Harbourg, where they captured hundreds of enemy soldiers and several flags but the unit was captured after the surrender of the garrison of Minden in March 1758, following a stubborn resistance. It was re-raised by a new commander, Thomas-Auguste de Grandmaison, who was the author of La Petite Guerre, a treatise on partisan and light troop warfare. Having been sent to Germany the unit fought at Bork, Minden, Mardorf, Nordecken and Laughaus in 1758, rescued Bercheny's hussars in a fight in July 1760 and then captured Minden in August. Its most famous feat was its capture of the infantry of G'shray's Prussian Frei Korps at Nordhausen in August 1761.

And this is the fusilier uniform in 1757:

And these were the later SYW flags of the Volontaires de Hainaut:



Wednesday, 17 November 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 29 von Schultze

Chefs: from 17th April 1747 Major General Hans Caspar Ernst von Schultze, later Lieutenant General, died 2nd December 1757 of wounds received at Breslau; from 5th January 1758 (to 1764) Major General Carl Gottfried von Knobloch, later Commandant of Schweidnitz



In 1756 IR29 was with Schwerin's 2nd Silesian Corps which withdrew on October. In April 1757 IR29 marched to join the King's Army. At Prague on May 6th, after the failure of Winterfeldt's attack, it was with Hautcharmoy's Division leading the breakthrough south of Kej but at the Rokenitz Brook suffered heavy casualties ((Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition, henceforth AFG1, shows at least 25% casualties) until saved by the advance of Schwerin's wing of the army. At Kolin on 18th June it was given the task of taking the Krzeczhorz Heights on the left flank with the advance guard under Major General von Hülsen. After repeated attacks which appeared to have succeeded by 5.30pm, Austrian counter-attacks completely overcame the Prussians who were defeated with heavy losses on the entire battlefield.  (AFG1 shows at least 40% casualties in IR29.)

With Bevern in August the regiment took up a fortified position on the River Lohe at Breslau, and in the defeat on 22nd November Lieutenant General von Schultze was mortally wounded. Breslau then surrendered to the Austrians. IR29 was reduced to only one-tenth of its numbers and the remainder retired to Berlin to be reformed.

In 1758 IR29 joined Prince Heinrich's Saxon Corps, whose task was to protect Saxony against much superior enemy forces. Major General C. H. von Wedell was its chef for only three months until transferred to IR26. At Hochkirch on October 14th the regiment lost at least 75% casualties (AFG1).

In the spring of 1759 the regiment was part of the advance into Franconia but then fought at Kunersdorf on August 21st and suffered heavy losses in the infantry fight on the Kuhgrund (AFG1 shows at least 45% casualties). One battalion was taken prisoner at Maxen on November 21st. The remaining battalion occupied Breslau in 1760 and the grenadiers fought at Liegnitz and Torgau (losses at Liegnitz were at least 20% (AFG1); the grenadiers of IR29 were combined with those of IR31).

Having been recruited up to full strength again IR29 joined the Goltz Corps in 1761 and experienced the advance through Gostin and Krölin and the subsequent breakthrough across the Spie Brook to the Württemberg Corps on October 2nd. But the regiment was then surrendered by its chef von Knobloch at Treptow on October 25th.

In 1762 it was in garrison in Breslau, and then both the regiment and the grenadiers took part in the siege of Schweidnitz from August 8th to October 10th; possession of Schweidnitz was crucial in deciding the ultimate control of Silesia by the Prussians at the end of the war.

Christopher Duffy (Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition) says: "Badly mauled at Kolin, Hochkirch and Kunersdorf. One battalion lost at Maxen". Of its grenadiers, he says: "Distinguished at Liegnitz. Suffered heavily at Kunersdorf and Torgau". Despite its unlucky record in the SYW, the regiment was in favour with Frederick after the war.

And this was the uniform in 1756:



Wednesday, 10 November 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 12 Erbprinz von Hessen-Darmstadt

Chefs: From 15th December 1743 Oberst Ludwig IX, Erbprinz von Hessen-Darmstadt, later Lieutenant-General; from 10th November 1757 Generalmajor Friedrich August von Finck, later  Lieutenant-General; from 29th May 1763 Generalmajor Johann von Wunsch, later General of Infantry.


In 1756 the regiment had already been mobilised on 26th June as part of the III Corps. It moved to Lusatia in December and was then at the battle of Prague on 6th May 1757, where it was on the right wing in the first line and under Colonel von Hertzberg led the breakthrough south of Kej "at a run over the long dam at Hostawitz". (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition, henceforth AFG1, shows the grenadier battalion as having lost about 25% casualties.) It missed Kolin. The regiment was considered well-trained by its chef Hereditary Prince Ludwig von Hessen-Darmstadt.

In 1758 the regiment was part of Prince Heinrich's Saxon Corps, intended to keep the Imperial army occupied and away from the Royal army. From the end of June it was stationed at Zschopau, Pirna, and Dresden, and then in mid-October was transferred to the corps of Major General von Finck, west of the Elbe. Its grenadiers fought at Hochkirch.

It was still in Saxony in 1759 and took part in the second advance to Franconia and then with the rest of Finck's Corps joined the King's army at Lebus by 9th August. At Kunersdorf on 12th August it was involved in the opening manouevres then the attack on the Trettiner Heights (AFG1 shows about 70% casualties). The grenadiers were at Liegnitz on 15th August and lost about 45% casualties (AFG1). On 20th November the entire regiment was captured at Maxen. Wunsch had wanted to fight his way out but was forbidden.

Reformed in 1760, one battalion of the regiment served with Prince Heinrich's Corps, which advanced to the River Warta to oppose the Russians; then it was in von der Goltz's Corps. After that in 1761 two battalions served with Zieten, then with Platen at Gopstyn in September and at Spie near Kolberg in October. Finally it was in Pomerania to the end of the year.

With the King's army in Silesia, on the 21st July the regiment stormed the southern redoubt at Ober-Leutmannsdorf with the bayonet, fighting up a slope with no cover. The King gave two Pour-le-merites to its officers as a reward.

Christopher Duffy (AFG1) says: "Broken at Prague, shot up at Kunersdorf, ridden down and captured at Maxen. Surprised at Cammerswalde 7 February 1779. Brave but unfortunate." It was well regarded by the King after the war.

And this was the uniform in 1756:



Sunday, 7 November 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

This Charles VI flag shows that the older War of the Spanish Succession-style square flags were still being carried in the 1740s.

I have also posted a possible Leibfahne, following the pattern of many of the Charles VI period flags.



Saturday, 23 October 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

This is the simplest of the Charles VI Austrian flags from the 1740s, as represented in my contemporary source, with no elaborate border. Well, it adds to the variety! There is a total of 16 probable Austrian flags in that source but I think 3 of those are (near) duplicates of 3 others, so the total is really only 13.


I've been asked to produce another hypothetrical Leibfahne so here it is:



Thursday, 21 October 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 28 Hautcharmoy

Chefs: from 1742 Colonel Heinrich Carl Ludwig Herault de Hautcharmoy, later Lieutenant General, who died 16th May 1757 of wounds received at Prague 6th May; from 5th January 1758 Major General Lorenz Ernst von Münchow, who died January 1758 of wounds received at Leuthen 5th December 1757; From 4th April 1758 Major General Johann Friedrich von Kreytzen; From 20th May 1759 Major General Friedrich Ehrentreich von Ramin, transferred to IR25; From 8th February 1760 Major General Friedrich Wilhelm von Thile (to 1770).

In 1756 the regiment was part of Schwerin's Silesian Corps, which protected the County of Glatz from enemy forces from mid-September to the end of October while the Bohemian offensive took place. Transferring to the King's army in mid-April, it took part in the battle of Prague on May 6th. As part of Hautcharmoy's force on the right wing  it led the breakthrough south of Kej. Casualties were heavy (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition shows about 40% casualties). Its chef Hautcharmoy was mortally wounded.

The grenadiers were in the defeat at Landeshut on August 14th and the musketeer battalions were captured by the Austrians on November 12th during the first siege of Schweidnitz. On April 16th 1758 the grenadiers took part in the storming of the city, taking the Galgen Fort, and the regiment was raised again from the more than 12,000 Prussian troops returned as part of a prisoner exchange. Silesia had also once more begun to send replacements after the battle of Leuthen,

In May IR 28 marched with the King's Army to besiege Olmütz. It suffered many casualties while guarding the train of 4000 waggons when it was attacked at Domstadtl in early May. Under Margrave Carl it went back to Silesia at the end of October.

In 1759 it was part of the King's camp at Schmottseiffen and fought at Konradswalde near Landeshut. On June 23rd 1760 the grenadiers were beaten at Landeshut. The rest of the regiment fought on the Warthe in Prince Heinrich's Corps.

In 1761 the regiment was in the King's camp at Bunzelwitz. The grenadiers were sent to Pomerania with Platen and suffered heavy casualties in the battles of Körlin, Spie and Kolberg..

In the winter of 1761-2 the regiment was reorganised and saw no more action in 1762 in Silesia. The grenadiers, with Bevern, fought at Reichenbach on August 16th.

Despite its few successes, the King, in his usual capricious fashion, favoured the regiment after the Seven Years War. But he claimed in 1784 that the  regiment was in such disorder that he needed to send officers from his own regiment to reorganise it.

And this was the uniform in 1756:



Friday, 15 October 2021

Four of the Charles VI Austrian flags as possible Leibfahnen versions

 I have been asked if it would be possible to have versions of the previous Charles VI company flags with white sheets to depict possible Leibfahnen so here they are:



Wednesday, 13 October 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

And here's yet another Charles VI flag, after an illustration in my new source. I'd hate to have to paint those borders by hand on wargames flags; drawing them in a vector drawing program is tedious enough... But at least they do look good. I'll do another Prussian flag set next; it feels like a holiday doing them after the Austrian flags. 8-}






Monday, 11 October 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 31 von Lestwitz

Chef 1746-25th June 1763 Major General Johann Georg von Lestwitz, later Lieutenant General and Chef of IR 32



First raised 1729. In 1756 IR 31 was with Schwerin's 2nd Corps in Silesia. In 1757 the regiment was sent to Bohemia to join the King's army north-east of Prague on 6th May. Both the grenadiers and the musketeer battalions fought at Prague; they were part of the first line that was thrown back by the Austrian defence, the grenadiers losing nearly two-thirds of their numbers and the musketeers two-fifths. After the battle both were involved in the abortive siege of Prague. They missed the defeat at Kolin. In July they went to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and were involved in the defeat at Breslau. After surrendering the city large numbers of the Prussian troops who marched out deserted.

In 1758 the regiment belonged to the Saxon Corps which advanced into Franconia. Hülsen then led them to join the Pomeranian Corps on the Warthe in June. At Kay (Paltzig) on July 23rd 1759 they were repulsed in the somewhat insane attack on the much stronger Russian position. The King took the regiment and grenadiers with his army to Kunersdorf on August 12th. The grenadiers, as part of the advance guard, lost over 50% casualties, and Frederick tried to use the musketeer battalions to help protect the retreating army after the lost battle on the Kuhgrund and the flight of the cavalry. They lost 431 men in the process (Duffy shows at least 40% losses). The King is said to have awarded every private soldier eight Groschen for their courage.

In 1760 IR 31 was at the unsuccessful siege of Dresden the at the battle of Liegnitz on August 15th. There only the grenadiers saw action and lost over 20% casualties. Two commanders received the Pour-le-merite for the action. On September 17th the regiment was involved in the storming of the heights at Hoch-Giersdorf, than at the battle of Torgau on November 3rd, serving in the Tettenborn Brigade of Zieten's command which decided the battle when Frederick thought it lost. They lost 200 men. The grenadiers were with Frederick's main army there.

Again with the King's army in 1761, the grenadiers were in the attack on the Adelsbach Heights on 4th July, losing 300 men, and then were involved in the successful siege of Schweidnitz from 8th August to October 10th. Unusually both grenadier and musketeer battalions almost always served together. The regiment was one of those in Frederick's favour after the Seven Years War.

And this was the uniform in 1756:



Tuesday, 5 October 2021

A speculative update on the last probable Leibfahne; 3 possible company flag variants of that flag

 Here are three possible company flag variants of that last Leibfahne; they are all quite feasible colour schemes and, in this area where we know far too little, these flags extend the possibilities and give "added value". ;-)



Monday, 4 October 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

This is one from my new source. I imagine that it is probably a Leibfahne as the background of the sheet is white. Many of the earlier flags do not seem to have used the Madonna figure as became standardised later, although some did. The eagle on the original is very crude so, although I have kept to its shape and style, I have "improved" it somewhat.

I did think of adding a couple of variants of this one with different coloured backgrounds rather than white; would that be a bit too ImagiNations-ish, though? I'll be interested to hear comments...



Sunday, 26 September 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Infantry Regiment 43 von Kalsow

Chefs SYW: Colonel Christian von Kalsow, later Lieutenant General to 19th January 1757; to 22nd January 1758 Major General Samuel Adolph von Kalckreuth; to 5th February 1760 Colonel Joachim Leopold von Bredow, later Major General; to 17th June 1767 Colonel Döring Wilhelm von Krockow, later Major General

This is another unusual flag set as the Kompaniefahne is completely green and the Leibfahne completely white, apart from the scrolls.



First raised as a garrison regiment in 1741 in Breslau, then converted 1744 into IR 43.

With Schwerin's Silesian Corps in 1756 and the grenadiers fought a rear guard action against attempts to pin them down at Lewin on October 29th. On January 9th 1757 300 men were added to the regimental strength and in April the regiment and grenadiers both marched to Prague. In the ensuing battle grenadiers and regiment were on the left wing in the initial attack which was repulsed and lost 400 men. They were involved in the siege of Prague from May 6th to June 20th. On the march home the First Battalion, barely 450 strong, reached Gabel and was attacked by overwhelming enemy forces and made prisoner on July 15th. At the end of August both the grenadiers and the Second Battalion went to Silesia under the command of Bevern. At the battle of Breslau on 22nd November they fought well on the right wing of the army at Pilsnitz. After the capitulation of Breslau there were only 100 men left.

In 1758 the regiment had been brought up to full strength again and was in the Saxon Corps, taking part in the invasion of Franconia to Hof and with Wedell in his counterattack on the Mulde crossings at Torgau and Eilenburg. The grenadiers were involved in the capture of Schweidnitz on April 16th and then fought at Zorndorf on August 25th, where they lost 246 men and another 87 captured.

In 1759 the regiment was in the advance guard at Himmelskron near Kulmbach, facing off against the Imperial army to May 11th. At the end of July the King took it with his army to face the Russians on the Oder River. At Kunersdorf on August 12th the regiment was in the second line of the advance guard in front of the right wing. It stormed the Bäckergrund and its abatis after a softening up bombardment of 30 minutes, and then took the Mühlberg and its large battery under tremendous fire. But the attack faltered and stopped in the Kuhgrund, with the loss of 550 men including Major the Prince of Holstein-Beck.

In 1760 the regiment was with Prince Heinrich against the Russians in northern Silesia and in 1761 in the camp of Bunzelwitz with the King.

In 1762 IR 43 stormed the Eisenberg at Adelsbach, south-west of Freiburg, under heavy fire and with the loss of 400 men. The King broke off the fight but Daun retreated anyway.

In 1784 the King excluded the regiment from his criticism of all the other Silesian regiments.

And this was the uniform in 1756:



Thursday, 23 September 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

Here's another flag of Charles VI, as probably carried by the army of Maria Theresa in the early 1740s; the source is the HGM in Vienna. This one is unusual in not having the various coloured flames round the edge but bands of colour instead.

Having found a new contemporary source which includes quite a few Charles VI period flags, I shall be able to create and post more in the coming weeks.

I shall reveal the new source of the Charles VI flags eventually but for the moment I am enjoying the thrill of apparently being the only person who knows of it.... Ha ha ha. 😀 (I can hint that it is out there on the Internet, if people know the key words to search on... 😏)

Monday, 20 September 2021

Prague Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Infantry Regiment 42 Brandenburg-Schwedt

Chef from 3rd November 1741 until 12th December 1788: Major General Heinrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (he had lost the favour of Frederick so although he drew the salary of his rank he did not actually command the regiment and the regiment accordingly was the only one in the army not to have a guard company).

Commanders in the SYW: to the 22nd April 1760 Colonel Balthasar Rudolf von Schenkendorff, later Major General; from then to 2nd April 1764 Major Heinrich Wilhelm von Lettow, who transferred to IR46.

The flags are unusual in not following the usual pattern; neither has a white centre.



First raised from a variety of odd sources in 1741.

The regiment was with Field Marshal Schwerin's Corps in 1756 and saw no action. In January 1757 it was strengthened by 300 men. Schwerin went to meet Frederick at Prague and in the battle on 6th May the regiment was in the second line on the left wing fighting "without particular distinction". The grenadiers (joined with those of IR33) took the Isar bridges at Zamost and were destroyed at Kolin on 18th June; only one officer, four NCOs and 19 men were uninjured, and 39 wounded were saved from capture. The battalion was filled up with Saxon prisoners. While marching back under the command of Prince August Wilhelm the Second Battalion was captured in the ruins of Zittau.

In 1758 IR42 was part of the King's army, after the prisoners had returned via Jägerndorf in mid-April. As part of Keith's Corps it was part of the encirclement of Olmütz from the west from 20th May to July 1st, and then the King withdrew as the military situation worsened. From August it was back in Silesia, this time under Margrave Karl.

In 1759 it was under the command of Major General von Wobersnow as part of the mission to destroy the Russian magazine at Posen and then fought at Konradswalde in the County of Glatz. July to August it was in camp at Schmottseiffen, under Prince Heinrich from July 29th.

In 1760 the First Battalion was with Fouqé at Landeshut and the survivors of that fight captured. The Second Battalion was with Zieten at Freiburg. The grenadiers were at Dresden, Liegnitz (Duffy Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition shows about 25% casualties), Hochgiersdorf and Torgau. Their commander was awarded the Pour-le-merite and promoted to colonel.

In Goltz's Corp in 1761, the Second Battalion served in the Pomeranian Campaign.

In August 1762 under Bevern what was left of the regiment took part in an action that beat four Austrian corps north of Peilau. The Second Battalion fought to the last man on the left wing. The King arrived in time to see off the enemy.

Christopher Duffy in AFG 1/2 says: "A very ordinary regiment."

And this was the uniform of a fusilier in 1756:

 


Here's another for the Prussophiles, which also happens to be the first of the Prague Prussian Flags Project; yes, I know I still have the flags of IR 15 to do to complete the flags of Rossbach and Leuthen! I have also recently discovered a contenporary source that shows many more flags of the Austrian army under Charles VI in the later part of his reign so there will be more 1740s Austrian infantry flags (and possibly cavalry ones too) to follow...

Saturday, 18 September 2021

Flag of yet another unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

Here we have yet another flag of an unknown Austrian regiment from the reign of Charles VI, which may well have been carried in the early 1740s. Once again, that's about all I can say about it! It feels rather like a holiday,  posting flags without much text... ;-) But I'll be back to the usual text-heavy postings next, with Baden-Baden, Volontaires de Hainaut, more Prussian flags to keep the Prussophiles happy etc. etc..



Sunday, 12 September 2021

Flag of an unknown Austrian regiment of Charles VI, as probably carried in the 1740s by the army of Maria Theresa

To keep things ticking over I present here a flag of an unknown Austrian regiment from the reign of Charles VI, which may have been carried in the early 1740s. That's about all I can say about it! There are a number of Charles VI flags for me to do, mostly from unknown regiments, which certainly cuts down the need for text, I am happy to say.


I have collected so much material for the text to go with the Reichsarmee Baden-Baden Regiment I now have to edit it down to a manageable size. Hey ho.

After I complete the flags of Prussian IR15, which are a complex job from scratch, I shall do the Prussian infantry flags of the battle of Prague; many have already been done for Rossbach and Leuthen but that still leaves 13 sets to do.

I have also already drawn the flags of the French light infantry Volontaires de Hainaut, which apparently, according to Kronoskaf, carried the flags of the Arquebusiers de Grassins. The text for that set remains to be done.

Thursday, 26 August 2021

Flags of Austrian Regiment Hoch und Deutschmeister as probably/possibly carried in the early War of the Austrian Succession

 I'm sure many of my readers will be aware that, when the Prussians invaded Silesia in an entirely piratical and unprovoked land-grab in 1740, Maria Theresa, who had just become Empress at 23, had neither the money nor time to reflag her army. Consequently her army went to war carrying the flags of her father Charles VI. We know the details of some of the flags but not all and a certain amount of informed speculation is needed when recreating them. The lack of standardisation is certainly colourful and attractive, and the same is true of the uniforms of the period, with coloured waistcoats and breeches, and musicians in varied and very colourful uniforms. From a military perspective, things like the lack of a standardised drill and artillery were not very helpful, though. In the eight years between the end of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748 and the beginning of the Seven Years War in 1756 the Austrian army underwent a huge transformation, which made it a much more formidable foe to the Prussians; as the Prussian said ruefully after the battle of Lobositz in October 1756, these are not the same Austrians (that they had beaten time and again in the 1740s). From the wargamer's point of view, though, it is a pity that in the process much of the colour and variety were lost!



These are the flags of Austrian Infantry Regiment Deutschmeister as posibly carried in the 1740s. The Leibfahne is somewhat speculative but based on patterns carried by other Austrian regiments. Many Leibfahnen of this period do not seem to have had the Madonna on them, unlike later in the century, but were a simpler variation on the Kompaniefahnen.

A blow by blow account of the regiment can be found on Kronoskaf.

IR No.4 Deutschmeister: First raised 1695

C J Duffy in his book The  Army of Maria Theresa (1977) says:

"Recruited in the Empire and especially the lands of the Teutonic Order. The Inhaber was the current head of the Order. A very famous regiment, distinguished at Camposanto, Rottofreno (1746), Kolin and Landeshut."

On its performance at Kolin: "Next in line to the west was Tresckow's corps which was repelled in fine style by the regiments of Deutschmeister, Baden and Botta."

In his more recent book By Force of Arms (2008) C J Duffy has a rather more critical account of the regiment. He says: "No.4 Deutschmeister. Proprietors: Wittelsbach, Clemens August, Prince, Elector of Cologne, as Grand Master (Hoch-und-Deutschmeister) of the Teutonic Order; succeeded as Grand Master in 1761 by Charles Alexander, Prince of Lorraine."

"Record: Distinguished at Kolin. Breslau, Leuthen. Stormed the Kirch-Berg at Landeshut. Otherwise of no particular reputation in the war [SYW, that is]. The crusading days of the Teutonic Order were long past, and the order was chiefly of value to the monarchy from its ability to recruit in its extensive lands in Swabia.

Significant losses: Very few prisoners or killed in action... Many deaths in hospital... and third heaviest desertion in the infantry."

He also says (which I cannot find specified anywhere else) that the regiment had black cuffs and lapels. All other sources suggest blue!


I suspect the more critical appraisal in the recent book reflects CJD's extensive new research in the Austrian archives; CJD himself says in the Foreword that rereading his own manuscript he was struck by how critical of the Austrian army it seemed, and that this probably is a consequence of the very warts and all completeness of the archives on the Austrian army, which speak well for the honesty and reliability of the material itself!

I plan to do more flags of this period soon...


Friday, 20 August 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 27 von Kleist

Chef from 1747 Major General Franz Ulrich von Kleist, later Lieutenant General, died 13th January 1757 of wounds received at Lobositz; from 20th January 1757 Major General Moritz Wilhelm von Asseburg; from 18th March 1759 Major General Daniel Georg von Lindstedt (to 1764)

Created 1715 from Swedish prisoners and 400 German mercenaries, plus officers and some other ranks from IRs 6 and 3.


 

It was on the left wing in the attack on the Lobosch Berg at Lobositz, October 1st 1756; the regimental chef Lieutenant General von Kleist stayed on his horse despite severe wounds which killed him three months later. 13 officers and 277 men were casualties. Kleist received the Order of the Black Eagle as did his majors, and 7 captains were given the Pour-le-merite in January 1757. The regiment was at the siege of Prague in 1757 but missed Kolin. It went to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and held a fortified post at Breslau for nearly two months from the end of September. The grenadiers were at Moys on September 7th. On November 22nd the Austrians stormed the Prussian position at Breslau and IR27 lost 13 officers and 687 men. Barely 500 men remained to fight at Leuthen on the right wing in the advance guard. The commander of the regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm von Wietstruck, was killed.

In 1758 Frederick took the regiment along to help besiege Olmütz and on 11th August it was at the battle of Zorndorf against the Russians where it lost 12 officers and 623 men, including its commander Lieutenant Colonel Carl Ludwig von Zessen. Moving to Silesia, the grenadiers were at Hochkirch on October 14th. On 26th March 1759 they were captured at Greiffenburg. The regiment was in the camp at Schmottseiffen.

Although the regiment was with Prince Heinrich's Corps in 1760 and after that with the King's army, it saw no further major action. In 1763 it consisted of 1738 Prussians, 67 Saxons and 165 foreigners.

Christopher Duffy says of IR27 (Army of Frederick the Great, 1st and 2nd Edition) "Frederick once saw it fall out of step while returning from a review, whereupon he called out to the inspector: "Saldern, let the regiment be! It was never very good at falling back - it has only ever known how to attack!""

And this was the rather fancy musketeer uniform in 1756:


I'm still working on the text for the Baden-Baden Reichsarmee flags and uniform so thought I'd better show willing and post something as it's now ten days since my last posting. I'm also thinking of posting the flags of Austrian regiment Deutschmeister as carried in the 1740s; they were the old flags as issued by Charles VI as Maria Theresa did not have time or money to issue new flags when faced with the aggression of Frederick of Prussia who invaded Silesia in 1740 almost as soon as she had come to the throne of Austria-Hungary.

Tuesday, 10 August 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 25 von Kalckstein

Chef SYW to 2nd June 1759 Colonel Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein, later Field Marshal; from 8th February 1760 to 1782 Major General Friedrich Ehrentreich von Ramin, later Lieutenant General and Governor of Berlin

Regiment of 2 battalions created 1715 from companies dating back to 1626.

 

The regiment was with the King's Army against the Saxons at Pirna in 1756.  At Kolin on 18th June 1757 as part of Bevern's corps the regiment lost a third of its officers and around 60-odd percent of its effectives (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition, henceforth AFG1). The regiment went with Bevern to Silesia and was at the defeat of Breslau on Novermber 22nd 1757. Here the regiment lost its commander Colonel Hieronimus Wilhelm von Eckardt. Despite such heavy losses the regiment and its grenadiers were at Leuthen. The regiment fought its way round the village and lost about 15% casualties (AFG1). It was then at the siege of Breslau, which culminated in the ignominious surrender of 17,000 Austrians on the 20th December.

In 1758 IR25 joined the King's Army and was at Zorndorf on August 25th; on the right in Dohna's Wing it helped drive off the Russian cavalry attack and suffered around 20% casualties (AFG1). At Hochkirch the regiment helped cover the retreat of the battered army.

In 1759 it was encamped at Schmottseiffen with the King; the grenadiers, as part of the advance guard, suffered around 40% casualties at Kunersdorf and the remnant were captured at Maxen.

In 1760 the regiment was with Prince Heinrich's Corps at Torgau on November 3rd, fighting as part of the Queiss Brigade on the left flank of the main army. As part of the second column under von Bülow they took the Süptitz Heights but were thrown back. Regimental casualties for Torgau are not available.

After being encamped at Bunzelwitz in 1761 the regiment headed for Pomerania on 25th October, stormed the Kolberg fortifications at Spie and was in Saxony by the end of the year.

In Silesia in 1762 IR25 was at the battle of Burkersdorf on July 21st, where it captured the northern fortifications at Ludwigsdorf but with heavy casualties. Its final action of the war was at the successful siege of Schweidnitz.

And this was the uniform in 1756:


 I had planned to post the flags and uniform of Reichsarmee Regiment Baden-Baden next but I am still working on the text for them. Of the remaining Prussian flags for Leuthen, of IRs 15 and 27, those of IR15 will take some time as they are unique and will need to be created from scratch...

Sunday, 1 August 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Fusilier Regiment 36 von Münchow

First raised 1740. Chef was Colonel Gustav Bogislav von Münchow, later Lieutenant General, from 1740-1766.


IR36 was with the King's Army at Lobositz on October 1st 1756, and was heavily involved in the fighting against the Croats on the Lobosch Hill. In 1757 it was at first with Schwerin's army, then with Keith as part of the encirclement of Prague from the west. At Kolin on the 18th June the regiment was with von Hülsen's advance guard leading the first attack on the Krzeczhorz Heights, which it took as well as the village and held to the bitter end, losing 23 officers and 908 men. By the evening there were only around 6-700 men left. From mid-August it joined Bevern's Corps and fought at Breslau on the left wing under Zieten; the regiment fought well despite being barely one battalion strong. Joining the King's army with the survivors of Breslau on the 2nd December, the grenadiers and the battalion-strong regiment fought at Leuthen on the right wing of the second line. The commander and the two captains of IR36 in the grenadier battalion 35/36 received the Pour-le-merite for their capture of four cannon at Breslau and of a battery at Leuthen, having lost 167 men at the latter battle. (Christopher Duffy in Army of Frederick the Great 1st Edition (henceforth AFG1) shows about 50% casualties.) The remains of the regiment went to join in the siege of Breslau.

From the end of March to the middle of April 1758 IR36 was with the King's Army successfully besieging Schweidnitz then advanced to Olmütz and the capture of the city of Littau. Under Margrave Karl it was involved in the occupation of Silesia. In 1759 the grenadiers fought at Kunersdorf (AFG1 shows about 50% casualties) and the regiment was at the camp of Schmottseiffen under the King then Prince Heinrich.

In the autumn of 1759 it was with Finck's Corps, which was surrounded and forced to surrender at Maxen on November 21st; in total 13,000 men of that Corps were captured, a huge loss to the Prussian army. Recruitment was difficult so the remaining battalion became part of the garrison of Schweidnitz, which was captured in 1761; IR36 and three other battalions laid down their arms. IR36 was not raised again until 1763 when its ranks were filled with Saxons from what had been the regiment of Prince Lubomirski, later Röbel.

Christopher Duffy says (AFG1) that IR36 had "an unenviable record" and that Frederick "held the... "Maxen" regiments in everlasting contempt", even though the responsibility for the isolation and loss of Finck's Corps ultimately rested with Frederick.

And this was the uniform in 1756:


This is another rather plain set of Prussian flags; the next two, IRs 25 and 27, are more complex and cheery. Then the last flags that need doing for the Leuthen list are those of IR15, the unique flags of Frederick's Guards. (They will also complete the Rossbach list.) Immediately after IR36's flags I plan to post those of the Reichsarmee regiment Baden-Baden, in tribute to their heroic fight at Freiberg in 1762 along with several other Reichsarmee units, whose flags I may also produce. Once I have completed the Prussian infantry flags line up for Leuthen I may go on to do those of the battle of Prague; many of the flags that remain to do for that battle are, as luck would have it, fairly complex and colourful.

Tuesday, 20 July 2021

Leuthen Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 30 von Blanckensee

First raised February 1728. Chefs in the SYW were: Major General Berend Sigismund von Blanckensee to October 1756;  Major General Hans Samuel von Pritz from 19.10.1756;  Major General Ernst Ludwig von Kannacher from 21.01.1757;  Major General Joachim Friedrich von Stutterheim from 01.01.1759.


The regiment was with the King's Army in 1756. The grenadiers were at Pirna helping hem in the Saxons and the 2 musketeers battalions were at Lobositz on the left flank under Keith where they were involved in  helping clear the Lobosch Hill of Croats; they lost 275 men. At Prague on May 6th 1757 the regiment was part of the breakthrough south of Kej under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick and appears to have suffered minimal casualties. On the 9th May the grenadiers and 2 musketeer companies stormed the Ziska-Berg north-east of Prague. The regiment was not at Kolin. In August the grenadiers went with the King to Rossbach and the musketeers went to Silesia with the Duke of Bevern and suffered defeat at Breslau on the 22nd November. On the right centre of the main line at Leuthen on December 2nd, the two musketeer battalions suffered only about 15% casualties (C J Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 1st Edition henceforth AFG1). After the battle the regiment was at the fall of Breslau on December 19th.

IR30 stayed in Silesia under Margrave Karl after the unsuccessful 1758 campaign. At Hochkirch on October 14th Field Marshal Keith tried to recapture the lost batteries along the eastern edge of the town at the head of IR30 but was shot from his horse and mortally wounded. The regiment was ordered to abandon the attack and the lost guns. Half the regiment was lost (AFG1 confirms 50% casualties).

In 1759 IR30 was in action at Torgau, Meissen and Böhmisch-Friedland. In 1760 it fought at Strehla under Prince Heinrich in August and at Torgau on November 3rd. Both grenadier and musketeer battalions led second the attack on the Süptitz Heights, suffering heavy casualties when attacked by four regiments of cuirassiers. Nearly all the officers were wounded.

In 1761 IR30 helped secure eastern Saxony and again in 1762, culminating in the battle of Freiberg on October 29th, where as part of the Jung-Stutterheim Brigade IR30 came up against, for once, three hard-fighting regiments of the Reichsarmee in the shape of Rodt, Trier and Baden-Baden. The brigade's attacks were repulsed. Only after the success of neighbouring attacks were IR30 and the other regiments of the brigade able to advance, towards the end of the battle. Frederick awarded two majors and a lieutenant of IR30 the Pour-le-merite.

Frederick called IR30 "a good and brave regiment".

 And here is the musketeer uniform in 1756:

 



Saturday, 10 July 2021

Flags of French Regiment Royal Cantabres, originally Volontaires Cantabres


Royal Cantabres began life as Volontaires Cantabres. It was first raised December 15th 1745 as a light infantry unit in the Basque region. It was initially a battalion of around 500 but was increased to around 1600 infantrymen and 300 hussars, with 2 cannon, in 1747. It campaigned in Flanders in the WAS and was at  the siege of Brussels and the battle of Rocoux in 1746. The unit was much reduced in numbers in 1748 then disbanded in 1749 leaving a small unit of 4 companies. It took the title of Cantabres-Volontaires in 1749. The four company unit took part in the French attack on Minorca in 1756 then became one regular battalion 8th July 1757 as Royal Cantabres. It was stationed in Auch in 1757 and then joined Soubise's Army of the Lower Rhine in 1761. In 1762 it was part of the French expeditionary force sent to Spain for the intended invasion of Portugal. 112th in the army list SYW. Disbanded 25th November 1762. (There is much more detail in the Kronoskaf page on this unit.)

And this was the uniform in 1757 (from the 1757 MS) although I have missed off some strange addition to the tricorne which is impossible to interpret on the MS drawing:

 

 

Back to Prussian flags next with the flags of IR30!

2 sheets of British late 17th century and early 18th century infantry flags, suitable for WSS

Yes, I know it's not SYW ;-) but - I have available 2 A4 sheets of British infantry flags which I did for a friend ages ago. They are too big to put on the blog but if you leave a message below (with an email address, heavily disguised to avoid spamming) or send me a message by my Contact Form (left side of the blog) I shall email the sheets to you.

Low-resolution snapshots here: