Friday, 10 July 2020

A question about the content of my flag posts...

At the moment I have 3 sets of Prussian flags from Rossbach waiting to be posted. It takes me quite some time to write up the text of the regimental histories and I could probably produce more flags more quickly if I did not include them. Is it worth continuing with the more or less detailed text? Or should I strip down the postings to include just the flags and probably the uniforms? Or does the text add value and interest to the posts? Some I quite enjoy myself e.g. the one for the unusual IR19. I look forward to hearing what people think; the more the merrier! Thanks, in anticipation.

And a shot of some of my semi-factual Austrian flags in action just to give this post some eye-candy content! :-)

Thursday, 9 July 2020

Alternative flags for French Irish Regiment Berwick from the 1721 Manuscript

These French Irish flags will just not let go, it seems. Here is the alternative set of designs for Berwick from the 1721 manuscript:

And next, I think it really will be back to the Prussians...

Wednesday, 8 July 2020

Flags of French Irish Regiment Lally

I couldn't resist doing the full set of Irish regimental flags for the Seven Years War before returning to the Prussians so here is the last set, for Regiment Lally.

The green is fairly tricky - this looks rather light but when printed should be just about the right shade of light dirty green.

The tale of Regiment Lally and French adventures in India is best read here on Kronoskaf:

And the lurid tale and grim end of its commander can be read here:,_Thomas_Arthur_Comte_de

And this is the uniform as it was at the beginning of the Seven Years War:

Thursday, 2 July 2020

Flags of French Irish Regiment Rooth

Although I now have a number of new Prussian Rossbach flags almost ready for publishing here, I decided to finish the set of French Irish flags for regiments that served in Europe (I may do Lally eventually though) with the flags of Rooth, so here they are. I was not happy with much of the secondary information on the appearance of these flags but managed to track down an online copy of the 1721 French flags manuscript on the website of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, which offers, I think, a more authoritative version of how the flags probably appeared.

These flags were carried 1698-1718 by Dorrington, then 1718-1766 by Rooth, then by Roscommon and Walsh to the Revolution in 1791.

This regiment traced its origins to a regiment raised by Charles II in 1661 which subsequently supported James II and went into exile in France in 1689.

In the Seven Years War its history was similar to that of most of the other Irish regiments. The first 3 campaigns it spent on the fronter of Flanders then joined the army of Germany in 1760. It was at the defence of Marburg and in the battle of Vellinghausen in 1761. In 1762 it was in garrison at Cambrai and was at Valenciennes when the peace was signed in 1763.

And here is the uniform as it was in 1756:

Saturday, 6 June 2020

Flags of French Irish Regiment Berwick

These are the flags carried from 1698-1791:

(The flags look smaller but are in fact at the same resolution 300 dpi and size as previous flags; I think it's the way blogger displays them. This set is taller than previous flag sets and so in appearance is shrunk by the blog. When you download the file, it should be OK.)

Formed 1698 from the remnants of various Irish units. Its history seems obscure. According to Susane, in the Seven Years War, it was with the Army of Germany in 1757, in the battle of "Haastembeck" (Hastenbeck) and the conquest of Hanover, then at the battles of Krefeld and "Lutzelberg" (Lutterberg). It was then at Minden in 1759. From 1760 to 1762 it served on the coast of France. This history differs dramatically from that recounted in Kronoskaf.

If anyone can point me at a fuller and probably more reliable history of the regiment, I would be grateful.

And this is the uniform as it was at the beginning of the Seven Years War:

(I am posting these flags and this uniform plate in order to keep the impetus going a little, as I last posted on the 28th May; I have been out of action most of the past week with painful eye trouble, which is now improving, fortunately. I shall return to Prussian flags as soon as I can.)

Thursday, 28 May 2020

Flags of French Compagnies Franches de la Marine

This is another stray which I said I'd add to my (long) list of flags to do many years ago. I've never been entirely convinced that these flags were ever carried despite the document of 1737 which describes them. Pierre Charrié, the noted French authority on flags, says in his book Drapeaux et Étendards du Roi that the central design was probably originally two crossed anchors. I've followed Michel Petard's famous reconstruction which is well-known and an attractive design.

This is a plate I did many years ago showing the probable summer dress of an infantryman of the Compagnies Franches de la Marine:

Kronoskaf has a long article on the Compagnies Franches de la Marine here:

Saturday, 23 May 2020

Flags of French Irish Infantry Regiment Bulkeley

These are the flags of Bulkeley from 1733-1775:

Bulkeley was another Irish emigré unit that entered French service in 1690.  As with so many French regiments there were various changes of name throughout its history, usually reflecting the name of a new colonel. It was Bulkeley from 1733 to 1775 when the regiment was amalgamated with Dillon.

For the first years of the Seven Years War Bulkeley was guarding the coasts. The regiment was sent in 1760 under the command of the chevalier de Jerningham, Charles Louis de Barfort, to join the army of Germany and it was at the combats of Corbach and Warburg. It was very distinguished in the defence of Marburg the 14th February 1761, where, according to Susane "it repulsed three attacks by the enemy, killed their commander General Breidembach and seven other officers, and took three cannons". In July it was in the battle of Vellinghausen "where the Irish captured the village and the redoubt of Schedingen". Its last act in the war was taking part in the attack on the castle of Sabbaborg. After the peace of 1763 the regiment was in garrison at Bouchain and it absorbed the remainder of the regiment of Royal-Écossais by an order of 21st December 1762.

These flags are the same as those carried by Dillon from 1690-1730.

And this is the uniform at the beginning of the Seven Years War:

This is the last French Irish regiment for now and next it's back to Prussians.

Friday, 22 May 2020

Flags of French Irish Infantry Regiment Clare

These are the flags carried from 1691-1775 (when Clare was absorbed into the Irish regiment Berwick):

Clare was another Irish emigré unit that entered French service in 1690.  As with so many French regiments there were various changes of name throughout its history, usually reflecting the name of a new colonel.

For the first years of the SYW Clare was guarding the coasts of Normandy with its quarters at Valognes. On the 7th August 1758 "it made glorious if ineffectual efforts, with the Liege regiment Horion, opposing the landing of a corps of 10,000 English [i.e. British], which seized Cherbourg" (my translation from Susane, Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, Volume 7). It was this attack which made France aware of the importance of this part of the coast, and led to the transformation of Cherbourg into one of its most redoubtable war ports (again, according to Susane).

Clare's single battalion was sent in 1760 to join the army of Germany and performed well at the combats of Corbach and Warburg. It contributed to the defence of Marburg in 1761 and fought bravely at Vellinghausen. It took part in the camp of Dunkirk in 1762 and on 21st December of that year incorporated the remains of the Scottish regiment of Ogilvy which had been raised in 1747.

At the peace of 1763 it went into garrison at Valenciennes, then Gravelines in May 1763.

And this is the uniform at the beginning of the Seven Years War (there were changes in 1758 with, for example, the addition of yellow lapels):

Tuesday, 19 May 2020

Flags of French Irish Infantry Regiment Dillon

I promised some of the French Irish flags a long time ago but here are some at last, those of the regiment Dillon, as carried from 1739-1791:

First raised 1690 from Irish refugees from the campaign in Ireland. In the Irish Brigade in Germany from 1757-1762, according to Susanne's History. Distinguished in the defence of Marbourg February 1761 and at the battle of Vellinghausen July 16th 1761. In various garrisons in France after the war ended.

And here is the uniform during the Seven Years War:

(I shall post the flags of Clare and Bulkeley soon; they followed the same pattern but with different colours. I shall eventually post the flags of all the French Irish units at the time of the Seven Years War.)

Monday, 11 May 2020

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 19 Markgraf Karl

And here at last are the strikingly different flags of IR 19 Markgraf Karl:

First raised 1702. During the Seven Years War the chef was Colonel Karl Friedrich Albrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt 1705-1762 (who passed on his dissolute ways to von Seydlitz, the famous cavalry commander, who was his page; von Seydlitz was with the Margrave from the ages of 14 to 19, and there acquired a passion for tobacco, womanising and crazy feats of horsemanship (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great, 2nd Edition)). The Margrave was also Master of the Knights of St John 1731-62, as his father had been before him, and this was reflected in the unusual flags with their Maltese cross design; that cross was also shown on their grenadier caps and drums. After the death of the Margrave from wounds in June 1762 the flag design changed to a more traditional Prussian design.

In 1756 it was with the force that encircled the Saxons in Pirna. At Prague May 6th 1757 it had the good fortune to be in the second line of the attack and suffered light casualties. At Rossbach on 5th November it had no losses at all, apparently. By contrast, at Leuthen on December 5th the regiment attacked the churchyard and was "under small arms fire from beginning to end and almost completely ruined". Having participated in the siege of Breslau, which fell on December 19th, the King said the regiment had "worked wonders" but gave no awards. (Frederick was a hard man to please...)  In 1758, after serving at the capture of Schweidnitz and the siege of Olmutz, it finally rejoined the King's forces in September. The entire regiment was badly clobbered in the surprise Austrian night attack on the Prussian camp at Hochkirch on October 14th. The grenadiers lost 209 dead and 50 prisoners defending the battery at Rodewitz; the 1st battalion defended the battery at the south-east corner of the town; and the 2nd battalion, under Major Simon Moritz von Langen, defended the churchyard. They held the churchyard for two hours before the remnants tried to break out of the back gate of the cemetery wall, using their bayonets as they had run out of ammunition. They were wiped out in the so-called Blutgasse outside the churchyard and von Langen died in Austrian captivity some days later from eleven bayonet wounds.

At Kunersdorf on 12th August 1759 the 1st battalion and grenadiers were in the advance guard and stormed the Russian batteries on the Spitzberg, losing 276 men; the 2nd battalion was on the right flank near the Kudenberg and lost heavily. Losses followed at Korbitz on September 21st. In 1760 it was at Strehla and Wittenberg, and at Torgau on November 3rd the 2nd battalion was with the Queiss Brigade under the King's command and the 1st with Zieten.

Christopher Duffy says that "after the Seven Years War Frederick failed to do justice to this remarkable regiment". He expressed dissatisfaction with its conduct at Kunersdorf as late as 1774, saying most of the regiment "did not want to behave properly in the field". In contradiction, he is also supposed to have said: "If I place myself at the head of my Markish troops, even if I have lost half my monarchy, as long as I still have my head, I'll drive the devil out of hell!".

And here is the musketeer uniform of IR 19 in the Seven Years War (note the zigzag orange line on the lace; tedious to represent but I had to try!):

(I have also now added uniform plates to the flags of IRs 1 Winterfeldt and 23 Forcade, below.)

Thursday, 30 April 2020

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 9 von Kleist

Here's the next set of flags in the ongoing Prussian Rossbach flags project; IR 9 von Kleist:

First raised 1679 in Lippstadt (with links to troops raised by 1646) this Westphalian regiment was at Lobositz in 1756 where Frederick placed them on the Lobosch hill to fight the Austrian pandours; Frederick said of them "The Westphalians are rather crude... but they are good soldiers and will defend themselves." The regimental chef Lieutenant General Johann Christian Rulemann, Baron Quadt von Wickeradt (who sounds rather like a music-hall German) was killed by artillery fire. The new chef was Major General Friedrich Ludwig von Kleist. At Prague on May 6th 1757 the regiment lost 20 officers and 550 men, half its number, in the attack along the Rokenitz Brook. At Rossbach it was in the centre of the main Prussian infantry line. Its new chef von Kleist was killed at Breslau on the 22nd November 1757. The grenadiers were knocked about at Kolin on June 18th 1757. In 1758 the regiment was with the Saxon Corps under Prince Henry, the grenadiers elsewhere in Upper Silesia. In 1759 IR 9 was in the defeat at Kay July 23rd against the Russians and there lost its commander Colonel Johann Gottfried von Kikol. At Kunersdorf 12th August it was luckier than many units, losing only about 20%; its new chef Major General Friedrich August von Schenckendorff led the advance guard. On November 21st 1759 it was captured at the disastrous (for the Prussians!) Finckenfang of Maxen, where a whole detached corps of the Prussian army was captured by the Austrians. Unlike many of the units captured there, which Frederick held in contempt thereafter, IR 9 fought hard and well and so was forgiven. Consequently there was only one battalion in 1759-60; Westphalia was occupied by the French and replacements were impossible. Only the grenadiers were at Torgau in 1760. For the rest of the war the regiment was mostly involved in moving hither and thither and not in any major actions, although the grenadiers were at Freiberg on October 29th 1762.

And this is the uniform of a musketeer of IR 9 in the Seven Years War:

(I had planned and started the unusual flags of IR19 but have had all sorts of problems with them, and wasted vast amounts of time and effort on them, so will have to start them again. Sometimes the gremlins just seem to run riot...)

Tuesday, 28 January 2020

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 5 von Braunschweig

Here's the next set of flags in the continuing Rossbach Prussian flags project - IR 5 von Braunschweig.

First raised 1655. Lieutenant General Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick was Chef of the regiment from 1755-1766. The regiment fought well at Lobositz 1756 and the king awarded its officers 3 Pour Le Merite medals for the action. It was highly distinguished in the battle of Rossbach 1757. Losses were low, although the regimental commander Colonel Johann Christoph von Prignitz was killed. The king gave its officers 15 Pour Le Merite medals for Rossbach "because of their particular bravery and good conduct shown in the last battle". IR 5 fought at Leuthen 1757. At Hochkirch 1758 it formed part of the rearguard that protected the retreating army. It suffered fairly heavy casualties at Kunersdorf 1759. At Liegnitz 1760 it contributed to the counter attack that threw the Austrians back over the Katzbach. It suffered heavy casualties at Torgau 1760, mostly from enemy artillery on the Süptitz heights. It was one of Frederick's most reliable regiments and always fought with the King's army.

And this is the uniform of a musketeer of IR 5 in the Seven Years War:

Sunday, 29 September 2019

Prussian Flags Project; Any point in continuing?

Well, I'm back after a long hiatus! Life and all that... Anyway, I wonder if there is any point in continuing with the Prussian Flags Project as that last flag attracted zero comments. Any thoughts from anyone?

Monday, 4 June 2018

Reposted: Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 23 Forcade

First raised 1713. Stationed in Konigsvörstadt and Spandau, suburbs of Berlin, between 1716 and 1806. Regarded as something of an elite regiment. "Major-General Friedrich Wilhelm Forcade de Blaix was a favourite of the king's and one day Frederick remarked of his troops: "When I want to see real soldiers, I watch for this regiment" (Archenholz). In the army, however, Forcade was known as "that old granny" (dat alte Mütterchen)" (Duffy, Army of Frederick the Great v.2). Two generations of Forcades commanded the regiment; the original Forcade was a Huguenot refugee from France.

The guard-style flags were given for the regiment's fine performance at Soor in 1745. In the Seven Years War it was distinguished at Prague 1757 (where it lost 22 officers and 602 men); was at Rossbach and Leuthen; and was again distinguished at Zorndorf 1758. During that battle Forcade was badly wounded around 7pm and the regiment lost 400 men. After Zorndorf Frederick said of this regiment and IR 18 Prinz von Preussen "I owe my salvation to these regiments and General Seydlitz. I could do anything with commanders and troops like these" (Duffy, op.cit.). It was also badly mauled at Hochkirch 1758. It was at Liegnitz 1760 and again mauled at Torgau in 1760, losing its commanding officer Colonel von Butzke, 22 officers and 365 men.

The uniform in the SYW was blue coat, red cuffs (no lapels), white waistcoat and breeches.

I can't quite believe it's  10 months since I last posted here. Life has been very busy and tiring since then...

And here is the uniform of a musketeer of IR23 (posted Th 07.05.2020):

Friday, 21 July 2017

Rossbach Prussian Flags Project - Flags of Prussian Infantry Regiment 1 Winterfeldt

I'm still not entirely happy with these but as it's now over a year since I posted anything thought it time to show something to keep things ticking over. No doubt someone will be happy to use them; they are freebies, after all.

I haven't time and energy to post regiment and uniform details at the moment; hopefully I'll be able to do that later.

And here is the musketeer uniform of IR1 (posted Th 07.05.2020):

Thursday, 14 July 2016

Some more "stray" French flags in the offing...

I've been sitting on a few variants of these unfinished flags for some years now:

I'm sure many of you will recognise them. So I thought I'd better finally get round to finishing and posting them! I hope to do various of the different regimental colour combinations of these flags, which will be fairly easy to do.

Will post them soon, hopefully...

Monday, 4 July 2016

Flags of French infantry regiment Royal La Marine

This is yet another "stray" flag set, which I did as a favour and which does not fit into any of my projects.

Royal La Marine - originally raised 1669 for fleet service from Compagnies franches de la Marine. Integrated into the French army in 1671. 2 battalions strong. Ranked no.44 in the SYW. In 1756 the regiment took part in the capture of Minorca and spent the rest of the war as garrison there and returned to France in 1763.

These are the flags:

The uniform was the usual grey/white coat with blue collar and cuffs (with 3 pewter buttons) and blue waistcoat. The horizontal pockets had 3 pewter buttons. The 1757 MS does not appear to have a picture, sadly.

Sunday, 26 June 2016

Flags of French Regiment Royal Italien

This is a "stray" set of French flags which I did as a favour for Paolo, the chap who runs this Facebook page: which has many illustrations and other information on the regiment. I thought I'd post them here anyway, even though they don't belong to any of my flag sets.

Royal Italien: Raised in April 1671 in Italy. Only one battalion. During the Seven Years' War the regiment ranked 48th.

Increased to 2 battalions by the incorporation of the disbanded Royal Corse Infanterie in December 1762.

Involved in the conquest of Minorca 1756 and still stationed there in 1757. 1759 transferred to Corsica where it remained until 1762.

These are the flags:

And this is the plate from the French 1757 manuscript:

Saturday, 25 June 2016

Mystery flags which may be on the way soon...

No prizes for guessing but it would be enjoyable to see who knows what these flags are... I'm sure many of you do. :-)

Sunday, 17 April 2016

Thinking about possibly posting some Prussian flags...

I have been thinking for some time that I might post at least a few Prussian flags, probably of Rossbach regiments  to go with the French Rossbach flags. I wonder if there's sufficient interest? I'd like to hear, so please do post your comment. Thanks.

Monday, 22 February 2016

Rossbach French Flags Project - Swiss Regiment Castellas

Regiment Castellas First raised 1672 as Pfiffer de Wyher and went through various renamings as Colonels changed until it became Castellas in March 1756. It was of two battalions and ranked 52nd in 1757.

In the SYW it was part of the Army of Germany and took part in the taking of Wesel, of which it became the garrison. It was at Rossbach where it was brigaded with Salis de Mayenfeld (and where captain of grenadiers Reich and lieutenant Muller were killed, captain Dieffenthaler was wounded and taken prisoner, and "amongst the wounded" were captain Waldner and lieutenant Krefeld. These officer casualties suggest that total casualties for the regiment cannot have been enormously heavy). Having fought at Lutterberg in 1758, it was distinguished at Bergen in 1759 and fought very well at Corbach in July 1760. It was also at Clostercamps in 1760, Langensalza in 1761 and Wilhelmstahl in 1762. (According to Susane, the grenadiers and chasseurs of this regiment distinguished themselves at the action of Neuhaus on the 13th September 1761.) At the end of the war Castellas became the garrison of Belfort.

[*Susane's volumes on the French infantry list officer casualties for all the Swiss regiments at Rossbach and it is interesting to compare them. I shall draw up a table when I have completed the flags for the Swiss units.]

Here are the flags for Castellas:

And this is the uniform and flag plate from the 1757 MS:

Sunday, 2 August 2015

Rossbach French Flags Project - Swiss Regiment Salis [De Salis-Mayenfeld]

Regiment Salis [De Salis-Mayenfeld] First raised 1st June 1734 from companies recruited in the canton of Grisons, although a company of the Baron de Travers from the regiment d'Affry became its colonel's company. 2 battalions. Ranked 102nd in the Seven Years War.

In the SYW it was at Hastenbeck (where Captain Salutz was wounded); Rossbach (where Captain Castelberg and Ensign Schouhe were lost*; these relatively slight officer casualties, especially compared with e.g. Swiss regiments Planta and Diesbach, suggest it was not heavily engaged, even though the regiment was on the right of the mass of French and allied infantry where the second Prussian cavalry charge took place); Krefeld; and Clostercamp. After 1760 it spent the rest of the war guarding the coast of France.

[*Susane's volumes on the French infantry list officer casualties for all the Swiss regiments at Rossbach and it is interesting to compare them. I shall draw up a table when I have completed the flags for the Swiss units.]

Here are the flags for Salis:

And this is the uniform and flag plate from the 1757 MS:

Saturday, 11 July 2015

Rossbach French Flags Project - Swiss Regiment Diesbach

First raised 1690. 2 battalions strong. Ranked 90th in the Seven Years War.

This was one of the few allied regiments to distinguish itself at Rossbach 5th November 1757, when Frederick of Prussia routed an army of French, Austrian and Reichsarmee troops twice the size of his own with minimal losses to the Prussians. There is a legend attached to their performance on that sorry day for France and the Reichsarmee. It is here recounted by Simon Millar in Osprey Campaign 113 "Rossbach and Leuthen 1757", page 35. "The two Swiss regiments [Diesbach and Planta] were like rocks in the swirling sea of fugitives and Prussians as they steadily carried out a fighting retreat. Frederick is said to have remarked, "What is that red brick wall that my artillery cannot manage to bring down?", and, being told it was the French Swiss infantry, he silently saluted them by doffing his hat as they marched off the field with colours flying and drums beating." Although he does not repeat the legend in his book "Prussia's Glory" on Rossbach and Leuthen, Christopher Duffy does commend the Swiss for their performance and says that Diesbach not only kept all its own flags but managed to retrieve the abandoned flag of another allied unit which had fled!

Susane in his history of the French infantry lists the following officer losses at Rossbach: Captain Garrigue and Lieutenants Borrer, Bury and Alion killed; Captains Balthazard and Rabel and six lieutenants wounded. Such a heavy casualty list among the officers supports the accounts that show them heavily engaged against the Prussians.

They performed dependably and often very well for the rest of the war, seeing action at Sandershausen, Lutterberg, Bergen and Wilhelmsthal.

Swiss troops served the French for several centuries, by special treaties with the Swiss cantons which were regularly renewed. During the Seven Years War there were around 20,000 Swiss serving with the French army. Unlike the native French units they could generally be depended on to be disciplined, sober and disinclined to looting. They wore uniforms of regular French cut but in red (garance for Diesbach).

And this is the uniform of the musketeer companies (unfortunately there does not appear to be a 1757 plate of this regiment):

Wednesday, 3 June 2015

NBA flags in action down in Oz!

On the 16th and 17th May Chris Kendrick and others fought a large ImagiNations' battle. Many of my flags were on display and, if I say so myself, looked pretty good, as did the splendid figures.

Below is a selection of pictures by Robbie Manning and Alan Knight, via Chris Kendrick, which largely feature my flags. Click on the pictures to see them expanded to full size. To see the full posting on Chris Kendrick's blog, see:

Wednesday, 6 May 2015

Trooper, British 15th Light Dragoons or Eliott's Light Horse [Updated with colour plate]

Raised 1759 as Eliott's Light Horse (or Dragoons), the regiment went to Germany in 1760 and almost immediately made a name for itself at Emsdorf, where it was claimed to have captured 16 colours, six cannon and 2600 Frenchmen. However, the battle was very costly to the regiment and it had to be withdrawn to reform and recoup its losses in Hannover. The resultant fame and publicity led to the raising of several more regiments of light dragoons and, unlike the light troops attached to the heavy dragoon units, most of them were not disbanded in 1763.

Uniform: Black enamelled cap, white metal crest and mountings (copper or brass metal sometimes depicted as an alternative), white GR cipher and crown on front, the crown showing red enamel through the gaps, turban dark green, horsehair mane red (although possibly originally designated as white over red), two white tassels at back of helmet. Black stock. Red coat with dark green collar, lapels and cuffs, lined white i.e. white turnbacks. White lace loops and white metal buttons on collar, lapels and sleeves. White tufted epaulette on each shoulder. Waistcoat and breeches white. Boots (of a lighter type than used by the heavy cavalry) black. Dark green saddlecloth with a tan leather seat joining the front and rear parts. Edging lace white with red central stripe. Full colour crown with white GR cipher at front. Rear corner red circle surrounded by wreath of natural coloured roses and thistles with LD in white. White fur cover on holsters.